Environmental Waste Management by Ram Chandra

By Ram Chandra

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By Ram Chandra

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This course in composting will result in adequate stabilization of organic matter, drying of the compost, and killing of pathogens and weeds. Low temperature typically indicates low aerobic activity in the composting pile. Temperature alone is not a fool proof indicator of aerobic activity, as it is a result of heat production and heat removal. Lack of aerobic activity can only be confirmed by measuring the oxygen content within the compost bed. To attain temperatures high enough for heat activation throughout in compost, the vessel has to be insulated to retain the heat produced.

If done correctly, a compost pile will heat to high temperatures within 24–48 h. If it does not, the pile is too wet or too dry or there is not enough green material (or nitrogen) present. The high temperature rise in the compost pile destroys weed seeds, pathogenic microorganisms and worms and prevents fly breeding. This and the generation of antibiotics during composting drastically reduce pathogens in the final compost. A temperature in the range of 55–65°C ensures destruction of pathogenic organisms.

Bleaching stages generally alternate between acid and alkaline conditions. Chemical reactions take place with lignin during the acid stage; the alkaline stages extract the reaction products of lignin through dissolution. At the washing stages, reaction products are removed. Bleaching stage effluent is the main source of color and toxicity to wastewater in pulp and paper industry. 3 Paper Making At the final stage, the stock is prepared by refining the pulp, and the paper is manufactured. Stock preparation includes dispersion of pulp in water, refining to increase surface area and addition of wet-end chemicals.

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