Fluids and electrolytes demystified by Johnson, Joyce Young; Lyons, Edward; Vaughans, Bennita W

By Johnson, Joyce Young; Lyons, Edward; Vaughans, Bennita W

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By Johnson, Joyce Young; Lyons, Edward; Vaughans, Bennita W

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45. 46, a condition called alkalosis. 34, then acidosis occurs. Acid–base balance is one of the most important aspects of homeostasis. The acid–base balance is concerned primarily with regulating the hydrogen ion concentration. 45 is maintained in the body when a 1:20 ratio of H2CO3 to HCO3 is maintained. 1 The optimal pH for enzyme function varies depending on where the enzyme is functioning in the body. For example, the enzymes that break down proteins in the digestive tract function at an acidic pH of 2, whereas those in the mouth that break down starches function at a pH of 7.

117] at [07/18/16]. Copyright © McGraw-Hill Global Education Holdings, LLC. Not to be redistributed or modified in any way without permission. 38 39 b. If yes, then the state is due to the respiratory system and is a respiratory alkalosis or acidosis. c. , the pH indicates alkalosis, whereas the PCO2 is higher than normal range [acidosis]), the respiratory system is not the cause of the imbalance, but it could be above or below normal to buffer a metabolic imbalance. d. Evaluate the base excess to determine if the acidosis or alkalosis is metabolic in nature.

CHAPTER 3 General Nursing Assessments Fluids and Electrolytes Demystified O2 Saturation Oxygen (O2) saturation is a measure of the percentage of hemoglobin (Hbg) saturated with oxygen. Oxygen bound to the iron in hemoglobin is referred to as oxyhemoglobin. , oxygen separation from hemoglobin to move to the tissues) occurs. At oxygen saturation levels that are less than 70 percent, tissues are unable to extract enough oxygen from the hemoglobin to function properly. 4 The oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve represents the increase in tissue oxygenation at higher hemoglobin saturation levels that occur under normal circumstances.

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