Textbook of neuroanatomy by Elliott, Harry Chandler

By Elliott, Harry Chandler

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By Elliott, Harry Chandler

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Patestas and Leslie P. Gartner © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Published 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. HISTOPHYSIOLOGY OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM reflex (knee jerk). Most reflex arcs are three or more cell reflex arcs, since they include a third neuron, the interneuron, interposed between the sensory neuron and the motoneuron. The reflex response associated with a three cell reflex may be overridden when interneurons receive an input from higher centers of the brain that prevent them from transmitting the information from the sensory neurons to the motoneurons.

Hydrocephalus may also be present and both of these conditions may require surgery. Orthopedic malformations of the hip and/or feet often occur and may need to be corrected surgically. Folic acid supplement very early in pregnancy decreases the incidence of neural tube defects, although the reason is unclear. The incidence is decreasing in the Western world, though it is still a common fetal malformation. QUESTIONS TO PONDER 1. What is the importance of the transformation of the embryoblast of the blastocyst into the trilaminar germ disc?

The term neuromere is a generalized name and, depending on the region of the developing brain, they are named prosomeres (in the forebrain), mesomeres (in the midbrain), and rhombomeres (in the hindbrain). There is a great deal of controversy concerning the existence of pro­ someres and mesomeres, because many neuroembryologists do not see signs of segmentation in the forebrain or in the midbrain, however, there is almost total agreement concern­ ing the presence of rhombomeres. Therefore, this textbook will not discuss prosomeres or mesomeres.

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