By Andrew Knight (auth.)
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Extra info for The Costs and Benefits of Animal Experiments
In contrast, assistance offered by chimpanzees and other NHPs appears mainly to be limited to biologically related or reciprocating individuals, and is rarely extended to unfamiliar individuals (Silk et al. 2005, Jensen et al. 2007), although Impacts on Laboratory Animals 35 such behaviour has been observed in common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus; Burkart et al. 2007). Effects of invasive research It is reasonable to expect that the relatively advanced emotional, psychological, and social characteristics of chimpanzees enhance their capacity for suffering in laboratory environments and invasive research protocols.
7 per cent) of the 75,000 industrial chemicals then in use and listed in the EPA Toxic Substances Control Act Inventory had been tested for carcinogenicity (Epstein 1998). 7 per cent of industrial chemicals included hundreds of millions of US dollars (Conolly et al. 1988), millions of skilled personnel hours (Gold et al. 1999), and millions of animal lives (Monro and MacDonald 1998, Gold et al. 1999). As noted by Bremer and colleagues (2007), requiring in vivo testing for every adverse effect in these high-throughput chemical testing programmes would exceed the capacity of available scientific facilities and expertise, would result in unacceptably high false positive rates, and would, in all likelihood, endanger the success of these programmes.
Studies have indicated that these species value opportunities to take cover, build nests, explore, socialise with compatible conspecifics (members of the same species), and exercise control over subsequent social relationships (Balcombe 2006). However, to standardise experimental conditions, and to facilitate access for experimental procedures and cage-cleaning, laboratory animals are typically kept in small cages, with a minimum of environmental enrichment materials. More enriched cages do exist, but their use is not widespread.