By Hans-Rainer Duncker
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Additional resources for The Lung Air Sac System of Birds: A contribution to the functional anatomy of the respiratory apparatus
Large laterobronchus, in the middle of the laterallung margin (Figs. -0). 11 speoies, in most species receives additional inflow from the parabronohial net of the lateroventra1 lung portion. Mostly, the laterobronchus opens up obHquely funnel- Fig. 14. Drawing of apreparation of a carrion crow, 001"lJ'U8 oorone, seen from ventral. Ventral abdominal wall removed together with the sternum which was disarticulated at the coracoids and the ribs. In the anterior portion of the preparation the pericardium is exhibited which attaches to the sternum via cranial and lateral partly considerably broad tissue bridges.
4. Larger posterior thoraeie air sac (D). 7. Very large posterior thoraeie air sac (D). A cervical, C anterior thoraeie, E abdominal air sac The Lung Air Sac System of Birds 33 In the middle of this inferior surface line of greatest thickness of the lung lies the lung hilus (Figs. 19b, 20b, c, 21 b, c, 22b, c, 28a, b, 29a-c). A cross section through the lung at any level has a cuneate shape, the basis of which lies at the medial septum of the thorax (vertebral bodies and hypapophyses) and the peak of which lies close to the lateral thoracic wall which has the ventrally curved cuneate surface annexed to it (Figs.
In penguins and emus not only an additional seeond ostium of the posterior thoraeie air sae is laeking but in these speeies the funnel-shaped opening of the laterobronchus also does not have any openings out of the parabronehi (Figs. 20e, 28a). At the ostia, the thin air sae waH turns over to the horizontal septum and eontinues its course on the oblique septum and the lateral trunk wall. Thus the air saes eompletely fill the spaee deseribed above. On a transverse plane, running from dorsal to ventral, the anterior and posterior thoraeie air saes meet and with their adjaeent walls form a membrane, whieh subdivides the spaee in an anterior and a larger posterior portion (Figs.