By Graham P. Weedon
More and more, environmental scientists, palaeoceanographers and geologists are amassing quantitative files of environmental alterations (time sequence) from sediments, ice cores, cave calcite, corals and bushes. This booklet explains the best way to examine those files, utilizing elementary reasons and diagrams instead of formal mathematical derivations. all of the major cyclostratigraphic equipment are lined, together with spectral research, cross-spectral research, filtering, complicated demodulation, and wavelet and singular spectrum research. useful difficulties of time-series research are thought of intimately. contemporary study into a variety of kinds of tidal and climatic cycles is summarized.
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Additional info for Time-Series Analysis and Cyclostratigraphy: Examining Stratigraphic Records of Environmental Cycles
Conceivably sequence stratigraphic data from many localities, used to create a continuous record of regional or global sea-level ﬂuctuations and assigned a time scale, would be amenable to analysis. However, the problem with such an approach has always been obtaining meaningful estimates of the amplitude of sea-level change, free of local tectonic factors, in tandem with a sufﬁciently reliable time scale. 2 Condition 2 – Unambiguous variable The variable recorded must have had an unambiguous relationship with some changing aspect of the environment.
As just explained, the rather ‘spiky’ nature of the time series, which results from this method of sampling, cannot be assumed to be free of aliasing (Fig. 8). 4 Sampling 37 Fig. 9 For most of the Belemnite Marls time series, each oscillation is deﬁned by many points. 3 m level both records take on a rather ‘spiky’ character suggesting that aliasing has occurred (cf. Fig. 8). irregularly spaced data. 3) to produce regularly spaced values, but interpolation of very ‘spiky’ data is unlikely to be successful.
The AM beat signal can only be preserved stratigraphically if there is at least partial rectiﬁcation of the carrier wave. For example, consider smoothing the AM signal shown in the middle panel. Ultimately increased smoothing would result in a straight line at the zero level. Hence smoothing of sediment composition, due to processes such as bioturbation, destroys the potential evidence for the annual cycle carrier wave. However, if there are processes causing rectiﬁcation (Fig. 3) then there can remain a record of the amplitude modulation (beat) frequency even after smoothing has destroyed the evidence for the annual cycle.