By Frederick B. Chary
Dr. Chary makes use of the German diplomatic papers captured on the finish of the conflict, released and unpublished Bulgarian resources, data in Bulgaria and Israel, in addition to own interviews with survivors and previous diplomats and officers to bare intensely dramatic and relocating stories-the nonetheless mysterious dying of King Boris, the intrigues wherein Bulgaria stalled deportation, the expulsion of Jews from the hot territories, and examples of guilt, appeasement, and courage.
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Extra resources for The Bulgarian Jews and the Final Solution
The millet was re sponsible for local administration and settlement of intrareligious dis putes. The Jews had their own courts which ruled on secular as well as religious matters solely concerning Jews. The millet had authority for taxation and punishment. In 1492, when the kingdoms of Spain and Portugal expelled their Jews, many of these fled to Turkey, and Salonika became their chief city. In the Balkans the old Jewish communities adopted the Sephardic ritual and custom. Some immigration of Ashkenazi Jews (especially those driven out by anti-Semitism in Hungary and Poland) occurred during the Turkish period; but many of these were also incorporated in to the Sephardic communities.
They were a handful of men within a body whose majority greeted the vacuous speeches of the government spokesmen with tu multuous applause. The names of the spokesmen for and against the bill are more revealing than the content of their speeches. Aside from Petur Gabrovski, who spoke as minister of internal affairs, and his deputy, Docho Hristov, who succeeded Gabrovski in 1943, none of the govern ment spokesmen were leaders of the first rank. Hristov, as the reporter for the Subranie’s Committee on Internal Affairs, really exceeded his authority when he turned his statement on the purpose of the bill into an anti-Semitic tirade in support of it.
Special restrictions isolating Jews from the German community continued in the years following the Nuremberg laws. In 1938 the Nazis passed the second major group of anti-Semitic laws. Jews were given special identity papers, special names, special mark ings (Stars of David) for personal wear, businesses and homes. They were more and more enjoined from participating in German society. They could not ride on public transportation, use telephones, possess radios or cars. They could shop only at certain hours in certain stores, stay at certain hotels for limited periods.