By Nightingale C.H., et al. (eds.)
Taking readers from the examine laboratory to the bedside, this moment version compiles crucial details at the pharmacodynamics of all significant periods of the antimicrobial armamentarium together with penicillins, cephalosposorins, cephamycins, carbapenems, monobactams, aminoglycosides, quinolones, macrolides, antifungals, antivirals, and rising brokers at the moment in improvement. Written by way of skilled pros within the box, this advisor makes use of an abundance of examples to depict how to observe pharmacodynamic options to daily medical perform.
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Additional info for Antimicrobial pharmacodynamics in theory and clinical practice
Bedos JP, Azoulay-Dupuis E, Moine P, et al. Pharmacodynamic activities of ciprofloxacin and sparfloxacin in a murine pneumococcal pneumonia model: relevance for drug efficacy. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1998; 286(1):29–35. Drusano GL, Johnson DE, Rosen M, Standiford HC. Pharmacodynamics of a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agent in a neutropenic rat model of Pseudomonas sepsis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1993; 37(3):483–490. Andes DR, Craig WA. Pharmacodynamics of fluoroquinolones in experimental models of endocarditis.
Europe Following the report of Ericsson and Sherris, it soon became apparent that consensus on antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) could not be reached. Several national committees evolved in Europe. In general, the process of establishing susceptibility breakpoints in Europe has been more or less the opposite to that in the United States. Most of the committees were, apart from creating reproducible AST methods, primarily interested in providing susceptibility breakpoints, which could be used to predict clinical and bacteriological efficacy based on serum concentrations achieved in patients.
However, the medium, incubation times, volume, temperature, and other variables were still a matter of debate. In addition, because not all bacteria grow in standard media, numerous variations have been listed for various microorganisms. These methods are described in various countries by 30 Mouton et al. their organizations in conjunction with breakpoint tables from the official organization in the various countries. As an example of the differences, the CLSI method included an incubation temperature of 35 C in Mueller Hinton Medium and an inoculum of 5 · 105 cfu/mL, while the BSAC uses Iso Sensitest, 35 C to 37 C and an inoculum of 105 cfu/mL (60).