By Joon Park, R. S. Lakes
With sixty years of mixed event, the authors of this widely revised publication have realized to stress the basic fabrics technology, structure-property relationships, and organic responses as a origin for a big selection of biomaterials purposes. This variation incorporates a new bankruptcy on tissue engineering and regenerative drugs, nearly 1900 references to extra interpreting, wide educational fabrics on new advancements in spinal implants and fixation ideas and concept. It additionally bargains systematic assurance of orthopedic implants, and accelerated therapy of ceramic fabrics and implants.
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Additional info for Biomaterials: An Introduction
2. 1. Atoms of the Same Size Crystals contain an orderly arrangement of atoms or molecules. A crystal need not be transparent. Diamond, salt crystals, and quartz are indeed transparent. Also, an ordinary piece of metal such as steel, aluminum, or brass contains many crystals in contact: it is polycrystalline. The crystals are ordinarily not visible since each one has nearly the same appearance. The poly- 20 CH. 2: THE STRUCTURE OF SOLIDS crystalline nature of a metal can be revealed by etching the surface with an acid, which selectively dissolves the surface of crystals that have different orientations.
3. IMPERFECTIONS IN CRYSTALLINE STRUCTURES Imperfections in crystalline solids are sometimes called defects, and they play a major role in determining their physical properties. Point defects commonly appear as lattice vacancies and substitutional or interstitial atoms, as shown in Figure 2-11. The interstitial or substitutional atoms are sometimes called alloying elements if placed intentionally, and impurities if they are unintentional. BIOMATERIALS: AN INTRODUCTION 27 Figure 2-11. Point defects in the form of vacancies and interstitials.
Generally, the higher the molecular weight, the lesser the mobility of chains, which results in higher strength and greater thermal stability. The polymer chains can be arranged in three ways: linear, branched, and a crosslinked or three-dimensional network, as shown in Figure 2-15. Linear polymers such as polyvinyls, polyamides, and polyesters are much easier to crystallize than the crosslinked or branched polymers. However, they cannot be crystallized 100% as with metals. Instead they become semicrystalline polymers.