By Kawazoe Y., Kondow T., Ohno K. (eds.)

Synthesizing particular clusters as an element of helpful nanostructures or controlling them as an meeting of nanocomposites is the final word target. in an effort to know how to synthesize person clusters or to enquire its houses, quite a few first-principles and empirical calculations and comparable computing device simulations were played along a number of experiments.

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The sign distinguishes input probability vectors from outtake probability vectors [2]. To fix the sign, let input vectors (kets) have positive norm and outtake vectors (bras) negative. This changes no physics in the usual quantum theory, which does not add bras and kets. Here it enlarges the group and must be tested by experiment. The constant i¯h of the usual quantum physics is then another non-zero vacuum expectation value, a frozen variable like the Minkowski metric gμ μ and the Higgs field.

J. Mod. Phys. A 17(10), 1413–1433 (2002) [arXiv:gr-qc/0105050v2] 23. : Adelic harmonic oscillator. Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 10, 2349–2365 (1995) [arXiv:hep-th/0404160v1] 24. : p-Adic and adelic cosmology: p-adic origin of dark energy and dark matter. p-Adic Mathematical Physics, AIP Conf. Proc. 826 (2006) 25–42 [arXiv:hep-th/0602044v1] 25. : p-Adic inflation. JHEP 0704, 056 (2007) [arXiv:hepth/0612230v1] 26. : Bouncing and accelerating solutions in nonlocal stringy models. JHEP 0707, 087 (2007) [arXiv:hep-th/0701184v4] 27.

17) i=1 Lagrangian for this collection of two distinct strings {φq , φ } is of the form LP = ∑ p∈P Lp = ∑ (−1) 2 D p∈P 1 mD p 2 1 − φ p p 2m2 φ p + φ p+1 . 5 Fig. 1 The 2-adic string potential V2 (ϕ ) (on the left) and 3-adic potential V3 (ϕ ) (on the right) of D standard Lagrangian (4), where potential is presented by expression (6) with mg2 = 1 String field φ in (18) we shall consider in its vacuum state φ = +1 or −1 with Lagrangian D L = −V (±1) = (−1) 2 +1 2 mD ∼ −Λ g2 2( + 1) (19) related to the cosmological constant Λ (prime index may remind Λ ).