By Robert Elsner
First published in 1983, this ebook issues the comparative physiological variations of vertebrate animals, in particular mammals, to cessation of respiring. those variations have been initially pointed out in species residing in aquatic habitats. The argument is gifted that the average divers exhibit a well-developed and comfortably studied instance of a extra normal defence opposed to asphyxia. the themes thought of contain the diving reaction, metabolic and cardiovascular diversifications, adaptations in resistance to asphyxia, neural keep an eye on mechanisms, which govern the respiration and circulatory responses, perinatal asphyxia, functions to the human species and clinical implications. The book's function is to acquaint its readers with a few advances as a result of examine during this box.
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First published in 1983, this e-book issues the comparative physiological variations of vertebrate animals, specially mammals, to cessation of respiring. those variations have been initially pointed out in species dwelling in aquatic habitats. The argument is gifted that the normal divers show a well-developed and very easily studied instance of a extra common defence opposed to asphyxia.
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Extra info for Diving and Asphyxia: A Comparative Study of Animals and Man (Monographs of the Physiological Society)
Fales, Heisey & Zierler (1962) studied the dog gastrocnemius-plantaris muscle in situ during partial venous occlusion and compared this procedure with the effects of arterial occlusion. They found that, within limits, muscle oxygen consumption was dependent on or limited by blood flow. However, Stainsby & Otis (1964) did not find such a relation except at very low levels of flow. Whalen, Buerk & Thuning (1973) suspected that the discordant results might be attributed to differences between red and white muscle.
The magnitude of the latter decrease was of the order which might be expected from the calculated decrease in oxygen consumption. The priority of asphyxial defence Where does the asphyxial defence response stand in relation to other circulatory functions? This question of the functional priorities of the circulation may be answered, at least partially, by examining situations in which an asphyxial threat is combined with another challenge which by itself would normally claim circulatory precedence.
The technique used small crystals implanted in heart muscle in such a way that distances between them could be electronically determined and recorded (Theroux et aL, 1974). Postmortem examinations of seal heart by injection of the coronary circulation showed that the density of coronary anastomoses, the anastomotic index (Menick, White & Bloor, 1971) is approximately one-tenth of the value found in dogs. Coronary blood flow in mammals is regulated to serve the metabolic requirements of the myocardium, which are determined by developed wall tension (derived from intraventricular pressure and ventricular end-diastolic volume), myocardial contractility and heart rate (Braunwald, 1971).