By Karl W. Butzer
Prehistoric Archeology and Ecology sequence, edited through Karl W. Butzer and Leslie G. Freeman.
Read Online or Download Early Hydraulic Civilization in Egypt: A Study in Cultural Ecology (Prehistoric archeology and ecology) PDF
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Extra info for Early Hydraulic Civilization in Egypt: A Study in Cultural Ecology (Prehistoric archeology and ecology)
Periodic erosion accompanied intervals of low Pleistocene sea level, when the Mediterranean Sea was almost 150 m lower than today--as recently as 20,000 years ago (see Curray et al. On the basis of interpretation of over 250 bore profiles Attia 1970). (see 1954) the three uppermost sedimentary units of the delta can be defined and their contact planes reconstructed (fig. 3). , when the Mediterranean Sea rose from -20 m to near the present level, the northern third of the Delta was vast tract of swamp and lagoon (fig.
P. 3, pl. 1). in 1935, This The import of these of channel sinuosity this trend continuing straightening out of the Nile channel may reflect both a decline of Nile volume and increasing ment starvation" due to the and dams. 5-km talweg and channel shift near Qaw. 3 km from those of today. Altogether, of seventeen deviations documented, eleven have involved eastward migrations of the Nile channel. 5 km west of their functional counterparts. A net eastward movement of the Nile over the last two millen- nia is implicitly documented by Ptolemy, who lists El-Manshah (Psoi) and Akhmim (Khant-Min) in similar positions on the river, but Qaw (Djuka) away from the river to the east, Kom Ishqaw (Edjoet) away from the river to the west names see fig.
2). the use of The area was soon abandoned and later covered with eolian sands when Nile floods were sufficiently low to permit salt efflorescences to form in the temple precincts. These were already sufficiently thick to merit commercial removal early in the Meroitic period (ca. D. 250). D. D. 800-1000. A second eolian episode terminated only when in- troduction of the saqiya permitted recolonization of the dune fields (de Heinzelin 1964). C. on a scale sufficient to promote floodplain dissection, with net aggradation not in evidence again until well into the Christian era.