By E B Welch; T Lindell
Content material: pt. 1. normal thoughts of aquatic ecosystems -- pt. 2. results of wastes in status water -- pt. three. results of wastes in working water
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As a result of a reasonably constant rate of release, the hypolimnetic P content increases more or less linearly throughout the stratified period. 2. Hypolimnetic mean concentrations in Lake Sammamish before and after autumn turnover (Rock, 1974). Closed circles=TP; triangles=TFe; open circles=DO. 5 to 34 mg m-2 day-1 with a mean of 16 mg m-2 day-1 for 21 lakes. While P is increasing in the hypolimnion, it is decreasing in the epilimnion through uptake and sedimentation by phytoplankton cells and zooplankton fecal pellets.
Dimictic lakes also exist at high elevations within subtropical regions. The requirement of two circulation periods per year is fulfilled in the mid-latitudes as long as the lake is continentally located. Within maritime areas in the mid-latitudes, the winter temperature does not reach a low enough level for the lake to freeze. Thus, only one circulation period occurs, resulting in a warm monomictic lake. The temperature during the winter is usually 4–7°C in a monomictic lake. Within cold regions, a corresponding lake type exists, with its one circulation period occurring during the summer when the temperature reaches 4°C.
The type of flow is often determined by the density gradient. 4) where =density of the liquid, u=mean water velocity, and g= acceleration resulting from gravity. When the liquid is homogeneous Ri= 0, the stratification may be called neutral. If Ri>0, the stratification is considered stable; for Ri<0, it is unstable. One can see that stratification increases as the density gradient increases. There are some contradictory opinions on the minimum value of Ri for a transition from laminar to turbulent flow.