By Federico Carpi
This booklet presents a entire and obviously dependent advent to the large box of transducers and synthetic muscle tissues in accordance with electromechanically lively polymers (EAP), the aim being to offer easy ideas and tested wisdom in an obtainable shape. Its educational type and constitution make this e-book an easy-to-use reference consultant for college students, researchers and practitioners alike. assorted sections conceal all different types of EAP fabrics, with separate chapters addressing the basics, fabrics, gadget configurations, versions, and functions, in addition to operative directions on the best way to start in experimentation with electromechanically energetic polymers. The useful and structural homes of EAP transducers are defined and defined, and their large diversity of functions in optics, acoustics, haptics, fluidics, car structures, robotics, orthotics, scientific instruments, man made organs and effort harvesting is illustrated.
Prepared less than the aegis of the ‘European clinical community for synthetic Muscles’, the ebook is the made from huge collaborative efforts led through eu researchers and related to revered specialists from round the globe.
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Extra resources for Electromechanically Active Polymers: A Concise Reference
At values below the transition temperature T % 33:8 C; the gel is in a swollen state. Strong crosslinking (low values of mC ) leads to lower values of the equilibrium swelling degree of the cross-linking and corresponds to the LCST of the polymer solution. The À volume in the deswollen state is roughly independent of the cross-linking Qeq % 2). For the swollen state, Qeq is proportional to mc 3=5 (Doi 2009). Note that the inverse À Á function T φeq , r can be obtained analytically from Eq. 12: À Á T φeq , r ¼ ÀBφ2eq : (13) À Á 1=3 ln 1 À φeq þ rφeq þ ð1 À r=2Þφeq þ ðA1 À A2 Þφ2eq þ 2A2 φ3eq Imagine we want to use the hydrogel as a mechanical actuator.
These synthetic approaches also provide the possibility of incorporating various functionalities inside hydrogel network and thus in turn controlling their response. The available methods for the fabrication of various types of functional hydrogels and their characteristic properties will be reviewed in this chapter. G. Agrawal • A. de # Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 F. 1007/978-3-319-31530-0_2 27 28 G. Agrawal and A. Pich Keywords Smart hydrogels • Actuators • Swelling • Response 1 Introduction In recent years, hydrogels have received dramatically increasing interest indicating their potential for research and practical applications (Ahmed 2013; Kopecek 2009; Wichterle and Lim 1960).
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , have been extensively explored due to their high potential in different areas ranging from actuators to biomedical applications. A number of synthetic pathways have been developed to synthesize hydrogels with desired chemical structure and to tune the mechanical properties and the swelling degree of these switchable materials.