By B. Elan Dresher, Nila Friedberg
This ebook will create better public understanding of a few fresh intriguing findings within the formal research of poetry. The final influential quantity at the topic, Rhythm and Meter , edited by way of Paul Kiparsky and Gilbert Youmans, seemed fifteen years in the past. because that point, a few vital theoretical advancements have taken position, that have ended in new ways to the research of meter. This quantity represents probably the most fascinating present pondering at the concept of meter. when it comes to empirical insurance, the papers specialize in a wide selection of languages, together with English, Finnish, Estonian, Russian, jap, Somali, outdated Norse, Latin, and Greek. hence, the gathering is really foreign in its scope. the quantity additionally comprises diversified theoretical techniques which are introduced jointly for the 1st time, together with Optimality concept (Kiparsky, Hammond), different constraint-based techniques (Friedberg, corridor, Scherr), the Quantitative method of verse (Tarlinskaja, Friedberg, corridor, Scherr, Youmans) linked to the Russian tuition of metrics, a mora-based technique (Cole and Miyashita, Fitzgerald), a semantic-pragmatic procedure (Fabb), and an alternate generative technique built in Estonia (M. Lotman and M. ok. Lotman). The e-book should be of curiosity to either linguists attracted to tension and speech rhythm, constraint structures, phraseology, and phonology-syntax interplay and poetry, in addition to to scholars of poetry attracted to the relationship among language and literature.
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Extra resources for Formal Approaches to Poetry: Recent Developments in Metrics
For example, consider the two commonest rhyming patterns found in folk song quatrains, ABCB and ABAB. They share the requirement that the even-numbered lines must rhyme, but the ABAB scheme in addition requires that the odd-numbered lines must rhyme. A stanza where both line pairs rhyme, such as (10), obviously satises both these constraints. How to dene 28 Paul Kiparsky formally a verse form, normal in folk songs, that requires only odd-numbered lines to rhyme? The problem is that the ABAB stanza type satises all the markedness constraints that ABCB does and then some – in OT terms, ABCB is HARMONICALLY BOUNDED by ABAB.
The probability of a form F is predicted from the propor- 34 Paul Kiparsky tion of those tableaux relative to all tableaux that are consistent with the partial ranking. For example, in a grammar with three unranked constraints, there are six tableaux for any given input. Suppose that for a certain input A, two of these tableaux select output A1 and four select output A2. Then A2 is predicted to be twice as frequent as A1 is, as a realization of A. In practice, of course, the number of constraints, rankings, and tableaux is much larger, the options more numerous, and the gradations of relative frequency are correspondingly more delicate.
One of the most appealing ideas behind Anttila’s theory is that variation is more easily learned than non-variation, because it comes about when some constraint ranking is not learned and the learner remains, in that respect, in the initial state of entertaining alternative rankings. Remarkably, Anttilastyle analyses, in spite of their discrete and minimalist character, tend to match the observed frequencies reasonably well, sometimes as accurately as the stochastic approach, which places a much greater burden on acquisition, and extends the power of the theory by bringing in the real numbers.