By Tol S. Purewal, David J.W. Grant
Metered Dose Inhaler expertise explores the applied sciences of pressurized metered dose inhalation (MDI) supply structures and gives useful, easy-to-use assistance to potent product formula. With contributions from a global panel of authors, the ebook addresses the worldwide phase-out of chloroflurocarbon chemical compounds (CFCs), the new release of propellant structures to interchange them, and their linked new drugs and treatments. themes contain the manufacture of metered dose inhalers, particle dimension research in inhalation treatment, improvement and trying out, pharmcokinetics and metabolism of propellants, toxicology, and extra.
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Extra resources for Metered dose inhaler technology
Therefore, the suspension type of formulation is usually 28 Metered Dose Inhaler Technology preferred. However, this statement is for general guidance only because many drugs are also stable in solution. Therefore, the reactivity of the mixture should be estab lished during pre-formulation studies. Some impurities can result from the extractives that leach out of sealing materials or the plastic components of the metering valve. It is, therefore, important to distin guish between these extractives and any degradation products resulting from a chemical reaction between the active substance and the excipients, under various storage conditions that the product is likely to encounter during its shelf life.
On actuation of the valve, some flash vapourisation of the propellant occurs initially in the expansion chamber (the space in the stem and the actua tor stem block) before an aerosol exits the actuator. This propellant vapourisation occurs because the expansion chamber is at a lower pressure than the aerosol container. The vapourisation cools the aerosol to a temperature cor responding to its boiling point at the pressure in the ex pansion chamber. The resulting vapour-liquid mixture leaves the device through the spray exit orifice in the adaptor, whereon further flashing of the propellant occurs 24 Metered Dose Inhaler Technology until the droplets are cooled to a temperature corre sponding to the boiling point of the mixture at atmos pheric pressure.
The resulting vapour-liquid mixture leaves the device through the spray exit orifice in the adaptor, whereon further flashing of the propellant occurs 24 Metered Dose Inhaler Technology until the droplets are cooled to a temperature corre sponding to the boiling point of the mixture at atmos pheric pressure. After these two flash vapourisations, slower evaporation of the droplets occurs at a rate that de pends upon the rate of heat transfer to the droplets from the environment around the droplets.