By Ondřej Klimes
During this quantity, the writer explores the emergence of nationwide cognizance and nationalist ideology....
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Extra resources for Struggle by the Pen: The Uyghur Discourse of Nation and National Interest, c.1900-1949
Unfortunately, this book touches insufficiently on the topic of the Uyghurization of the once common Turkic language spoken and written in the educated circles of Western and Eastern Turkestan. Original Turkic/Uyghur terms and expressions are transcribed according to the contemporary Uyghur used in the anthology edited by Frederick Starr (Starr 2004, xi–xii). This anachronizing approach of rendering an early modern language practice into a transcription devised for a contemporary language was adopted partly for the sake of typographical convenience and partly to underline the above-discussed vernacularization process, as well as to emphasize the fact that there is a direct linear continuity between the language of the late imperial Xinjiang Turkic population and today’s Uyghurs.
However, in contrast to recent trends in English-language studies of China to directly introduce the Chinese term 民族 mínzú into English for denoting concepts such as “nation,” “minority nationality,” or “ethnic group,” this survey chooses to translate the term “millet” into English using contextually suitable, yet varying, terms. Although the title of this book promises its contents are devoted to the “Uyghur discourse of nation and national interest,” the use of the word “Uyghur” in the title is at least partially anachronistic and is employed mainly for the sake of simplification.
One of the many conclusions that can be drawn from Newby’s study is that during the one hundred years after the conquest of Yettishahr in the early 1860s, the Qing managed to establish Xinjiang as a nonnegotiable part of the Chinese polity, but Qing dysfunctional administration also stimulated Protonational Identity and Interest (c. 1900) 37 the emergence of a self-aware and dissatisfied population of Xinjiang Turkic Muslims (Newby 2005, 256–57). During the 1860s, the deterioration in economic and social conditions in Yettishahr erupted into a series of events that eventually led to the Qing’s utter loss of control over Xinjiang.