By Liu X., Chu P.K., Ding C.
Titanium and titanium alloys are commonly used in biomedical units and parts, in particular as demanding tissue replacements in addition to in cardiac and cardiovascular purposes, due to their fascinating homes, akin to really low modulus, strong fatigue energy, formability, machinability, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. even though, titanium and its alloys can't meet the entire scientific specifications. for this reason, with a purpose to enhance the organic, chemical, and mechanical houses, floor amendment is frequently played. this text reports a few of the floor amendment applied sciences concerning titanium and titanium alloys together with mechanical remedy, thermal spraying, sol-gel, chemical and electrochemical remedy, and ion implantation from the viewpoint of biomedical engineering. fresh paintings has proven that the damage resistance, corrosion resistance, and organic houses of titanium and titanium alloys might be more desirable selectively utilizing definitely the right floor remedy thoughts whereas the fascinating bulk attributes of the fabrics are retained. the correct floor therapy expands using titanium and titanium alloys within the biomedical fields. many of the contemporary functions also are mentioned during this paper.
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Additional info for Surface modification of titanium, titanium alloys, and related materials for biomedical applications
33. Amorphous contents and porosity levels of HA coatings sprayed with different power levels and plasma gas mixtures .  and water vapor treatment . After the vapor–flame treatment, the crystallinity of HA coatings has been observed to increase to 98% [246–248]. The thickness of the HA coating affects both its resorption and mechanical properties. A thicker coating usually exhibits poorer mechanical properties. The suggested optimum thickness is about 50 mm in order to avoid fatigue failure while still providing reasonable coating bioresorption and consistent bone growth [249–252].
Recently, self-assembled monolayers of alkane phosphates or phosphonates have been used on titanium surfaces to tailor selected physico-chemical properties of the surface, such as wettability and electrical charge [191,192]. SAMs have also been widely used for the biofouling study on 81 82 X. Liu et al. / Materials Science and Engineering R 47 (2004) 49–121 material surfaces . Several functionalized SAMs have been prepared on gold. The effects of the surface chemistry on protein adsorption and cell adhesion have been discussed [194–197].
About 70% of the mineral fraction of bone has a HA-like structure and the use of HA as an orthopedic biomaterial has been suggested and clinically demonstrated. However, the mechanical properties of HA are quite poor, making it unsuitable as bulk a material in applications where high load or strain occurs. The idea of using plasma spraying to produce HA coatings on endoprosthesis was first proposed in Japan . It has been shown that implants with a HA surface develop a strong connection with the bone tissue in a short time [222–224].