The Routledge spouse to Bioethics is a accomplished reference consultant to quite a lot of modern matters in bioethics. the quantity orients the reader in a altering panorama formed via globalization, wellbeing and fitness disparities, and quickly advancing applied sciences. Bioethics has began a flip towards a scientific quandary with social justice, inhabitants future health, and public coverage. whereas additionally masking extra conventional issues, this quantity absolutely captures this fresh shift and foreshadows the ensuing advancements in bioethics. It highlights rising matters corresponding to weather swap, transgender, and scientific tourism, and re-examines enduring themes, equivalent to autonomy, end-of-life care, and source allocation.
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Additional resources for The Routledge Companion to Bioethics
Thomson, J. (1971) “A Defense of Abortion,” Philosophy & Public Affairs 1 (1): 47–66. Ubel, P. (2001) Pricing Life: Why It’s Time for Health Care Rationing, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Walzer, M. (1984) Spheres of Justice, New York: Basic Books. Wenar, L. (2011) “Rights,” in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. edu/ entries/rights/ (accessed July 7, 2014). Wilkinson, R. and Marmot, M. (2003) “The Social Determinants of Health: The Solid Facts,” World Health Organization. id=QDFzqNZZHLMC&printsec=frontcover& source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false (accessed July 7, 2014).
It would be hard to plan one’s day, let alone one’s life, knowing that one could be drafted at any moment into the protracted war against disease. Note that this argument against coercion is based on the likely social consequences, not on some notion of natural human rights. Still, the social rules that utilitarians follow in attempting to maximize the social good often exhibit the same functions as individual rights. Even though in a particular case it might be utility maximizing to dragoon poor Jones into a study of malaria drugs, the long-term welfare of individuals and society will be best served by following publicly promulgated rules that require informed consent and so do not permit this kind of assault on individual liberty.
Utilitarianism claims to be a liberal, individualistic theory by insisting that “everyone counts for one, nobody for more than one” (Bentham 1907; Mill 1863/2001: Chapter 5); but critics point out that no sooner does utilitarianism count an individual’s welfare than it plunges her into an aggregate social utility function in which her rights may be subjected to political bargaining. Hence the worry that utilitarianism is insufficiently attentive to the “separateness of persons” (Rawls 1971). The most famous critic of utilitarianism in this vein is the late John Rawls, who was arguably the greatest political theorist of the twentieth century.