By Bruce Sharp, David Sharp
Water hammer, or the research of fluid brief behaviour, is likely one of the commonest difficulties within the water engineering group. This publication covers the various factors and strategies in a realistic approach and is a vital reference for all these fascinated with the move of beverages, not only water, in pipe structures. It follows on from the authors' past monograph at the difficulties and options of water hammer and provides universal difficulties within the type of case reviews. this is often a fascinating and necessary learn for practicing engineers operating during this zone and it'll allow them to make comparisons with their very own difficulties. additionally the sensible nature of the booklet makes it valuable for civil engineering departmental libraries and departments the place hydraulic layout is taught.
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Extra info for Water Hammer: Practical Solutions
K(5,9) 40 30 20 "min 10 0 r 1 1 1 M 1 1 M 1 1 11 M 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 km X 4 Fig. A3 Results, pump fail GD^ = 15000 If the inertia term had been 10 000 then the full vacuum would have first developed at 2375 m. These comparisons, or sensitivity analyses, show the effect of differing GD^ with respect to the development of vacuum conditions which in this case study is pertinent, given that the steel pipeline diameter is such that the collapse due to arching failure is very much a consideration.
1 In-line protection Many factors effect the water hammer developed in a system. In the case of a pump failure, the seriousness is often related to the return velocity being arrested at the upstream end by the non-return valve at the pump flange. The thought is that if the full length of the water column can be reduced by strategically placed non-return valves along the pumping main then there will be less water hammer. 1 is the data for a simple case where the longitudinal profile is such that separation of the water column is bound to occur on pump failure and the use of a non-return valve along the main line is analysed.
These problems may be resolved in a number of ways. In these studies we use a sort of sensitivity analysis of the effect of different values for the inertia /, using as a starting point the values calculated by a formula developed by Linton (1954), for example. m. and the inertia symbolised by GD^ is in kg m^. m. Whilst the evaluation of the exact inertia is laudable, given the uncertainties in the system and the difficulty of prescribing the events which produce the water hammer, it must be recommended that the sensitivity of the water hammer to various values of inertia be tested.