By Boye K. Ahlborn
This ebook offers a physicists view of lifestyles. the first lifestyles capabilities of animals, corresponding to consuming, turning out to be, reproducing and getting round all rely on movement: movement of fabrics throughout the physique, movement of limbs and movement of the total physique via water, air and on land. those actions are pushed through inner details kept within the genes or within the mind and through exterior info transmitted through the senses. This ebook types those lifestyles capabilities with the instruments of physics. it is going to entice all scientists, from the undergraduate point upwards, who're drawn to the position performed through physics within the animal nation.
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Extra info for Zoological Physics: Quantitative Models of Body Design, Actions, and Physical Limitations of Animals
3 km/g. 3 = 400 km. There is not much margin for error if the bird does not forecast correctly the winds over the Sahara desert. The bird needs the mechanical power to get where it wants to go. High energy efficiency is at a premium when a large distance has to be covered. In all their actions organisms have to pay in energy for the tasks they need to accomplish. It is instructive to see how energy flows from primary sources to the accomplishment of a certain task. 3 Compound Efficiency of the Energy Conversion Chain There is a long chain of events from an original source of energy to its final use.
Aims can often be reached by different means; birds fly on feathers, bats fly on skin. Mammals hear with ears on the head, some insects hear with their legs. Frogs achieve high image resolution with lens eyes, while flies achieve it with the shaped light pipes in their facet eyes. Hence when interpreting the results of model calculations, one must keep an open mind. The physical model is like the shadow of a multi-dimensional structure, it never reveals the full view of the object. Physics is somewhat like Poetry; the essence lies not in the symbols and words but in the message, which may be conveyed with different allegories.
Single cell organisms deal with many physical effects related to energetics: statistics, light and dark, hot and cold. However, larger animals must heed additional constraints, and enjoy additional opportunities given by the physics of macroscopic scales. For instance single cell organisms have no voice, they cannot see, they are unable to jump or to actively fly, and they cannot maintain a constant body temperature. Such effects become important only for larger organisms. These topics of Zoology are modeled here with physics concepts and equations.