By Sukhada Mohandas, Kundapura V. Ravishankar
Bananas and plantains are one of the most crucial nutrition and funds vegetation on this planet. they're cultivated in additional than one hundred thirty five international locations, around the tropics and subtropics, with an annual worldwide construction of ca. one hundred thirty million metric tonnes. although bananas are the most vital elements of nutrition protection in lots of constructing international locations, banana creation is threatened via either abiotic and biotic stresses. those comprise quite a lot of ailments and pests, similar to bunchy most sensible virus, burrowing nematodes, black Sigatoka or black leaf streak, Fusarium wilt, and so on. lately, significant development has been made and a number of other biotechnological and genomic instruments were hired to aid comprehend and resolve the mysterious banana genome. Molecular and genomic reviews have helped to decipher the Musa genome and its evolution. Genetic linkage map and full genome sequencing of either Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana (progenitors of cultivated banana) have thoroughly replaced the best way of pondering and the strategy on banana crop development. Whole-genome sequencing has helped to enhance the choice of quantitative characteristics comparable to yield, in addition to the choice of optimum mom and dad for constructing required hybrids in breeding courses. Gene isolation and the research of mutants have helped within the characterization of genes of agronomic worth and the linked regulatory sequences. With the arrival of molecular markers and new statistical instruments, it's now attainable to degree the range, determine genes and necessary alleles associated with very important agronomic features. additional those alleles could be integrated into cultivars via marker assisted choice or via transgenic method. Transgenic techniques are strength instruments for direct move of those genes into well known cultivars, that are mostly no longer amenable for traditional breeding suggestions, in particular with plants similar to bananas that are sterile, triploid and heterozygous thereby making it tricky to reconstruct the recurrent genotypes in banana. Transgenic thoughts hence have helped triumph over the trouble of operating with sterile, triploid banana crop. within the final 5 years, huge, immense volume of recent info and methods were generated for banana. A complete ebook entitled “Banana: Genomics and Transgenic ways for Genetic development” on banana genomics, most modern transgenic applied sciences and instruments on hand for more suitable crop improvement in banana will deal with these kinds of requisites.
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Additional resources for Banana: Genomics and Transgenic Approaches for Genetic Improvement
Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) which provide codominant chromosome-speciﬁc markers have been used extensively in studies to assess genetic relations between accessions (Heslop-Harrison and Schwardacher 2007; Buhariwalla et al. 2005; Ravishankar et al. 2012). Inter-retroelement ampliﬁed polymorphisms (IRAP) (Nair et al. 2005) and Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers (Channeliere et al. 2011) are also routinely used. One of the most important applications of molecular biology in plant breeding is the use of molecular markers linked to important traits.
Afr Crop Sci J 12(1):59–65 Ploetz RC, Churchill ACL (2011) Fusarium wilt: the banana disease that refuses to go away. Acta Horticult 897:519–526 Purseglove JW (1975) Tropical crops monocotyledons, vol 1. Halsted Press Division, Wiley, p 519 Ravishankar KV, Rekha A, Malarvizhi M, Ambika DS (2011) Apomictic seed development in Ensete superbum induced by pollen of wild banana sp. Musa balbisiana. ). J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 87:84–88 Ravishankar KV, Raghavendra KP, Athani V, Rekha A, Sudeepa K, Bhavya D, Srinivas V, Ananad L (2013) Development and characterisation of microsatellite markers for wild banana (Musa balbisiana).
2004) pointed out that the genetic gain obtained by nuclear restitution in the R. Menon ﬁrst stage (production of tetraploids) is reduced by the recombination which occurs during meiosis of the tetraploid in the second stage. Thus the choice of the diploid used in the F1 and F2 stage has a direct bearing on the reconstitution of secondary triploid hybrids. The AAAB hybrids resulting from crosses between AAB and AA express symptoms of BSV due to activation of viral sequences integrated in the B genome of these cultivars (Tenkouano and Swennen 2004).