By Steven Levitsky
Aggressive authoritarian regimes - during which autocrats undergo significant multiparty elections yet interact in critical democratic abuse - proliferated within the post-Cold struggle period. in line with a close learn of 35 instances in Africa, Asia, Latin the USA, and post-communist Eurasia, this publication explores the destiny of aggressive authoritarian regimes among 1990 and 2008. It reveals that the place social, monetary, and technocratic ties to the West have been large, as in japanese Europe and the Americas, the exterior fee of abuse led incumbents to cede strength instead of crack down, which ended in democratization. the place ties to the West have been restricted, exterior democratizing strain was once weaker and nations hardly ever democratized. In those instances, regime results hinged at the personality of kingdom and ruling social gathering agencies. the place incumbents possessed constructed and cohesive coercive celebration buildings, they can thwart competition demanding situations, and aggressive authoritarian regimes survived; the place incumbents lacked such organizational instruments, regimes have been risky yet not often democratized.
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Additional resources for Competitive Authoritarianism: Hybrid Regimes After the Cold War
Incumbents also may use the state to monopolize access to private-sector ﬁnance. , Mexico and Russia). 49 The state also may be used to deny opposition parties access to resources. 50 In Ghana, entrepreneurs who ﬁnanced 45 46 47 48 For a sophisticated discussion of how incumbent abuse of state resources shapes party competition, see Greene (2007). Oppenheimer (1996: 88). Hoffman (2003: 348–51). See Allina-Pisano (2005) and Way (2005b). In Guyana and Peru, soldiers were mobilized for electoral campaigns; in Serbia, the security apparatus provided logistical support for the “anti-bureaucratic revolution” movement that helped Miloˇsevi´c consolidate power (LeBor 2002: 200–201).
Yet such assumptions are often misguided. The coexistence of meaningful democratic institutions and authoritarian incumbents creates distinctive opportunities and constraints for actors, which – in important areas of political life – generate distinct patterns of political behavior. We examine some of these areas in the following sections. , democratic) rules and actual behavior that is inherent to competitive authoritarianism, their role in such regimes may be particularly important. , single-party) authoritarian rule, the post–Cold War international environment created incentives for incumbents to employ informal mechanisms of coercion and control while maintaining the formal architecture of democracy.
S. funding for democracy-assistance programs “took off ” (Burnell 2000b: 39–44), increasing from near zero in the early 1980s to $700 million at the turn of the century (Carothers 1999: 6; Burnell 2000b: 49). Competitive Authoritarianism 18 Kingdom, and France announced that they would link future economic assistance to democratization and human rights. 104 These changes in the international environment raised the external cost of authoritarianism and created incentives for elites in developing and postcommunist countries to adopt the formal architecture of Western-style democracy, which – at a minimum – entailed multiparty elections.