By Alan Hunter, Jay Sexton
Modern China is a full of life account of China this day which specializes in the past due Nineties. The Maoist period and the early Nineteen Eighties have been definitely formative, yet China now faces various new matters like unemployment, crime, and environmental pollutants that call for
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Peasants' private plots and sideline activities were revived and extended. The scale of the retreat from collective agriculture was remarkable; by 1962, in some areas, around half the land was being managed by private households and rural markets were flourishing. It was at this time that Deng made his famous The History of Modern China 33 remark, that it does not matter what colour a cat is, so long as it catches mice. Mao, however, was reconciled neither to his reduced role nor to what he saw as rightist policies.
In 1923 an agreement was reached whereby CCP members were to establish a 'united front' with the GMD: they would join the GMD while retaining their own distinct organization. The Soviet Union began to ship large quantities of military aid to the GMD stronghold of Guangzhou, and Comintern advisors led by Mikhail Borodin established a military academy at nearby Huangpu to build up the GMD's new model army, the National Revolutionary Army (NRA). Soviet aid to the GMD was decisive in transforming it from a regional to a national force; by comparison, aid provided directly to the CCP was miserly.
In 1949 China's intellectuals had for the most part either welcomed or remained neutral towards the new government. But following a series of heavyhanded thought-reform campaigns many, if not most, now resented and feared the regime. Mao was not blind to the dangers of a disaffected intelligentsia, a condition contributing to a deepening crisis of East European socialism that came to a head in the 1956 Hungarian uprising. In May 1956 CCP propaganda chief Lu Dingyi signalled an easing of ideological controls when he raised the slogan 'Let a hundred flowers bloom and a hundred schools contend'.