By Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development
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Extra resources for Corporate Governance: A Survey Of Oecd Countries
Excluding specific principles such as those of investment funds Nation Code Main objectives Instruments United Kingdom Higgs Report January 2003. Review of the role and effectiveness of non-executive directors through proposed revisions to the Combined Code. Now included in Combined Code. Improve quality and accountability of independent directors; strengthened oversight of audit and accountancy; 1/2 independent non-executive directors within the board (chairman excluded); separation chair-CEO; nomination committee of a majority of independent directors headed by the chair; remuneration committee entirely of independent directors.
To maximize corporate value by enhancing the transparency and efficiency of corporations for the future. Voluntary. Improve shareholders’ participation, information and voting at AGM; at least ¼ outside directors;1 cumulative voting to ensure representation of minority shareholders; establish committees, audit committee chaired and made of ⅔ outside directors; disclosure of all information material to shareholders’ decision-making. Update February 2003. ; institutions to exercise voting rights and disclose.
Pension funds in Japan are managed by trust banks and insurance companies. Division between banks and insurance companies are estimated. No data is available on the extent to which mutual funds own shares. Security houses do manage such funds. These companies are included under other financial institutions. Australian figures are for the end of September 1996. Source: M. Maher and T. Andersson, op. , and updates by the OECD. 33 1. POLICY CONCERNS AND DRIVING FORCES pursuing their own interests) and aligning incentives with other shareholders.