By Stephen Sennott
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Extra resources for Encyclopedia of twentieth century architecture, Vol.1 (A-F)
From this angle, Aalto turns out to be a pure dissident of the avant-garde, emphasizing the complexity of architecture by leaving aesthetic values behind him. Even before adopting the language of modernist architecture, the young Aalto was determined to be as avant-garde as possible, which in Scandinavia in the early 1920s meant a sophisticated and mannerist neoclassicism. His early work shows the influence of anonymous irregular Italian architecture and neoclassical formality as developed by 19th-century architects such as Carl Ludwig Engel, and these strategies were to remain important throughout his career.
Although the functioning of this element is very questionable, curved walls and ceilings became typical of his later work. In the 1930s, surprisingly enough, Aalto, who had until this point been known as the most modern of Finnish architects, began returning to the vernacular tradition. With the Finnish Pavilions to the World Exhibitions in Paris (1937) and New York (1939), he infused functionalism with his own organic alternative and radically parted ways with mainstream International Style. The critics appreciated this move, for they saw Aalto’s primitivism in connection with his origin in the exotic and unspoiled Finland.
JR. (United States) PORTOGHESI, PAOLO (Italy) POST OFFICE SAVINGS BANK Vienna, Austria POSTMODERNISM POWER PLANT PRAGUE, CZECH REPUBLIC PRAIRIE SCHOOL PRECAST CONCRETE PREDOCK, ANTOINE (United States) PREFABRICATION PRIMITIVISM PRISON PRITZKER ARCHITECTURE PRIZE PRUITT IGOE HOUSING St. Louis, Missouri PUBLIC HOUSING PUIG I CADAFALCH, JOSEP (Catalonia) PURCELL, WILLIAM GRAY, AND GEORGE GRANT ELMSLIE (United States) R RAILROAD STATION RAMSES WISSA WASSEF ARTS CENTRE Harrania, Egypt RANCH HOUSE RASMUSSEN, STEEN EILER (Denmark) RATIONALISM RAYMOND, ELEANOR (United States) REGIONAL PLANNING REGIONALISM REICHSTAG, BERLIN Berlin, Germany REINFORCED CONCRETE RENAULT DISTRIBUTION CENTRE Swindon, England REPRESENTATION RESEARCH CENTER RESORT HOTEL RESTAURANT REVELL, VILJO GABRIEL (Finland) REWAL, RAJ (India) RICOLA STORAGE BUILDING Laufen, Switzerland RIETVELD, GERRIT THOMAS (Netherlands) RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL RIYADH, SAUDI ARABIA ROADSIDE ARCHITECTURE ROADWAY SYSTEMS ROBIE HOUSE Chicago, Illinois ROCHE AND DINKELOO (United States) ROCKEFELLER CENTER New York City ROGERS, RICHARD (England) ROMAÑACH, MARIO (Cuba) ROMANIA ROME, ITALY ROSSI, ALDO (Italy) ROTTERDAM, NETHERLANDS ROW HOUSE ROWE, COLIN (England) ROYAL INSTITUTE OF BRITISH ARCHITECTS (RIBA) RUDOLPH, PAUL (United States) RUSSIA AND SOVIET UNION S SAARINEN, EERO (Finland) SAARINEN, ELIEL (Finland) SAFDIE, MOSHE (Israel and Canada) SAINSBURY WING, NATIONAL GALLERY London, England SALK INSTITUTE La Jolla, California SALMONA, ROGELIO (Columbia) SANT’ELIA ANTONIO (Italy) SANTIAGO, CHILE SANTOS, ADÈLE NAUDÉ (South Africa) SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL SARASOTA SCHOOL SAUDI ARABIA SCARPA, CARLO (Italy) SCHAROUN, HANS (Germany) SCHINDLER, RUDOLPH M.