By James Crosswhite
Chapter by way of bankruptcy, Deep Rhetoric develops an figuring out of rhetoric not just in its philosophical size but in addition as a method of guiding and engaging in conflicts, reaching justice, and knowing the human situation. alongside the best way, Crosswhite restores the conventional dignity and significance of the self-discipline and illuminates the twentieth-century resurgence of rhetoric between philosophers, in addition to the position that rhetoric can play in destiny discussions of ontology, epistemology, and ethics. At a time while the fields of philosophy and rhetoric have diverged, Crosswhite returns them to their universal moorings and indicates us an invigorating new means forward.
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Additional resources for Deep Rhetoric: Philosophy, Reason, Violence, Justice, Wisdom
When Aristotle distinguishes between the different arts of logos, he converts an unmanageable truth into a problem to be solved—and he solves it in a masterful way. Rhetoric and dialectic are clearly distinguished and their separate spheres are explained. Rhetoric is subordinated, and philosophy is brilliantly elaborated and explicated, but philosophy is now a discipline to be executed and no longer a comportment—one akin to worship—toward a good that cannot be conceptualized or disciplined. The deep ethical and existential rigors of restraint and critique and intense dialogue between specific people with specific kinds of souls that need tempering and leading in specific kinds of ways in order for what is most worth pursuing to have any chance of showing itself—that kind of philosophy is forsaken for the philosophy that might plausibly make a claim to a general kind of knowledge.
But if rhetoric is the universal form of human communication, how could it increase and decrease in its power to shape social life? How could it be in a kind of competition with science to shape social life? If it is the universal form of communication, and science is not, how could rhetoric ever not shape social life more profoundly than science? In general, if it is the universal form of human communication, it cannot at the same time permit of being “more or less” the universal form of human communication.
Perelman was also in the audience. Perelman’s rhetorical theory develops a concept of rhetoric whose scope reaches to all nonformal communication, including inward deliberation. Ricoeur believes that this concept is too broad, that distinctions must be made among rhetoric, poetics, and hermeneutics. He argues that each has a different generative seat, a different origin, and he concludes that this limits rhetoric’s scope in a specific way. Ricoeur says that rhetoric was born with the legal reforms that took place in sixthcentury BCE Sicily, and he believes that rhetoric is forever conditioned, shaped, and limited by the typical discursive situations in which it arose.