By Lester R. Kurtz
"This striking three-volume set seeks to respond to simple questions about smooth war, clash, violence, and peace, but additionally covers present themes equivalent to police brutality, aggression in activities, tv violence, and animal aggression. the best worth of this multivolume paintings is its interdisciplinary insurance. The set is damaged down into 15 topic parts masking nearly two hundred assorted concerns. every one article is ready 9,000 phrases, together with a definition of the topic, illustrations, glossaries, and bibliographies. it really is a good resource written by means of students from round the world."--"Outstanding reference assets 2000", American Libraries, may perhaps 2000. Comp. by means of the Reference assets Committee, RUSA, ALA. Read more... v. 1. A-E -- v. 2. F-PE -- v. three. Po-Z, index
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Additional resources for Encyclopedia of violence, peace & conflict. / Volume 2
In spite of current discourse about the rights to pri- FAMILY STRUCTURE AND FAMILY VIOLENCE AND NONVIOLENCE vacy of family members, the control of reproductive contexts is among the oldest objects of the state, often functioning in tandem with religion. Aspects of family structure and functioning such as marriage and ﬁnancial commitments, inheritance, and paternal obligation to offspring were the objects of state regulation through well-implemented policies since the beginning of state formation.
For instance, the establishment of foundling homes in 18th-century Russia or 19th-century Italy, as well as other regions of Europe, was a state-initiated effort at control of perceptibly rising births of unwed mothers. Infant mortality rates in these institutions were typically as high as 90%. However, the government-sponsored rhetoric surrounding the institutions was one of charity, often paired with punitive attitudes towards the unwed mothers and forced servitude as wetnurses. The state’s neglect of the use of physical tactics of control and punishment toward both wives and children is also indicative of a policy, albeit usually unproclaimed.
Since most governments still fail to prohibit or circumscribe the use of force in marital or ﬁlial relationships, they tacitly allow these violations of women’s and children’s human rights to persist—and to date many human rights organizations have still not taken a strong stand on this issue. In addition, extended 5 family members or the community often force women to remain with abusive husbands after marriage, and cultural norms still accept a husband’s abuse of his wife as normal. Moreover, on the most basic survival level, women often have no other economic alternative.