By Jacek Skomial, Helene Lapierre
Improvement in agricultural sciences, fairly in farm animal sciences, ended in the elevated productiveness to fulfill the call for for top of the range and comparatively affordable protein assets for human nutrients. In parallel, this elevated productiveness demanding situations the enough provide of meals, together with protein and effort, had to conceal not just excessive performances, but additionally insure animal healthiness and welfare, replica and caliber of goods in a sustainable atmosphere. the fitting figuring out of the animal biology is important for animal overall healthiness and welfare, sustainable animal production, Read more...
summary: improvement in agricultural sciences, quite in farm animal sciences, led to the elevated productiveness to satisfy the call for for prime quality and comparatively affordable protein resources for human food. In parallel, this elevated productiveness demanding situations the enough offer of foodstuff, together with protein and effort, had to hide not just excessive performances, but in addition insure animal overall healthiness and welfare, copy and caliber of goods in a sustainable atmosphere. definitely the right figuring out of the animal biology is important for animal health and wellbeing and welfare, sustainable animal creation
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Extra resources for Energy and Protein Metabolism and Nutrition 2016
2003). , 2012). In addition, hepatic glycolysis may be important to provide substrates for amino acid and lipid metabolism in the liver. , 2010; Bergman, 1973; Reynolds, 2005). During the transition from pregnancy to lactation and in the early lactation, hepatic glucose release from propionate increases and propionate is still the dominant glucogenic precursor in dairy cows. , 2003). , 2003). , 2010; Bergman, 1973; Young, 1977). In early lactation, when feed intake does not meet energy requirements for milk production and hepatic glucose production enlarges at the same time, the demand of using other glucogenic precursors than propionate for hepatic gluconeogenesis becomes obvious (Larsen and Kristensen, 2013).
Thus, the elevated dry matter intake and incremental microbial activity may magnify their contribution to hepatic glucose output with ongoing lactation (Bergman, 1990; Larsen and Kristensen, 2013). Interestingly, Larsen and Kristensen (2013) summarised that 40% of liver glucose release is from recycling of glucose carbon (lactate, alanine, glycerol) at day 4 of lactation. This calculation implies the importance of endogenous sources for net hepatic glucose production in early lactation, when feed intake does not meet energy requirements for milk production, supporting the previous assumption on endogenous lactate metabolism (Stangassinger and Sallmann, 2004).
Lactate is the preferred precursor when phosphoenolpyruvate is synthesized from oxaloacetate by mitochondrial PEPCK. , 2010; Hanson and Reshef, 1997; Nelson and Cox, 2001). , 2013). , 2010; Bergman, 1973, 1990; Pilkis and Granner, 1992). , 2010; Bergman, 1973). , 2013a). , 1999). , 1999). , 2013a). , 2013a). Therefore, the time changes of G6PC after parturition may best fit to elevated hepatic glucose production, comprising hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. , 2010). , 2010). , 2013a).