By Novartis Foundation
The cerebral cortex is the crowning fulfillment of evolution and the organic substrate of human psychological capacities. utilizing a comparative evolutionary developmental method of the research of its beginning is helping to supply new insights into this advanced and significant challenge. The comparability of immature levels finds good points of evolution which are another way obstructed by way of the complexity of the mature mind, and the research of improvement when it comes to attainable evolutionary occasions is helping us to target the main biologically proper mechanisms. during this ebook, best specialists within the fields of mammalian, reptilian, avian and amphibian mind improvement and from evolutionary biology, take on the elemental query of the starting place of the cerebral cortex. The ebook contains severe examinations of tools used to check homology within the imperative anxious procedure and strategies utilized in cladistic research. contemporary facts at the earliest generated temporary cells within the mammalian, reptilian, avian and amphibian forebrain are mentioned, as are attainable homologies according to particular connectional research. a number of the hypotheses at the starting place of the mammalian isocortex are mentioned intimately and new effects are offered on cortical association in reptiles, birds, marsupials, monotremes and different species.
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Additional resources for Evolutionary Developmental Biology of the Cerebral Cortex
In contrast, in the macaque monkey, with a 165-day gestation, all cortical neurons are generated within the two-month period, between E40 and El00. Finally, in the human, with a 40week gestation, corticogenesis lasts more than three months, from the end of the sixth week (E42) to about the 20th week (Reviewed in Sidman & Rakic 1973, 1982). Before neurogenesis starts, the common progenitor (founder) cells in all three species are dividing symmetrically: each progenitor produces two additional progenitor cells during each mitotic cycle (Rakic 1988).
This means that half of the stem cells should undergo cell death, but this did not seem to be the case from your TUNEL stain results. Rakic: The surface of the cortex in the mutants is visibly larger, but it is not double the size. Furthermore, the sections stained with the TUNEL method that you refer to in your question, illustrates the cerebral wall at the late stage of corticogenesis, when neurons destined for the cortex are being generated. At this stage we see relatively few TUNEL-positive cells.
Nature 374:719-723 Evard P, Caviness V, Prats-Vinas J, Lyon G 1978 The mechanism of arrest of neuronal migration in the Zellweger malformation: an hypothesis based upon cytoarchitectonic analysis. Acta Neuropath 41:109-117 Gilmore EC, Ohshima T, Goffinet AM, Kulkarni AB, Herrup K 1998 Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 deficient mice demonstrate novel developmental arrest in cerebral cortex. J Neurosci 18:6370-6377 Hallonet MER, Teillet MA, Le Douarin NM 1990 A new approach to the development of the cerebellum provided by the quail-chick marker system.