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Twenty-one foreign experts study the position of the ANS within the upkeep and regulate of physically homeostasis, in addition to within the pathogenesis, pathophysiology, and remedy of issues similar to heart problems, high blood pressure, bronchial asthma, diabetes, ischemia, myocardial infarction, urinary retention, and melancholy. whereas many of the articles care for hugely particular features, there also are numerous large chapters that supply a grounding during this region.
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Additional info for Handbook of the Autonomic Nervous System in Health and Disease (Neurological Disease and Therapy)
B. Disorders of the Urogenital Tract Disorders of the urogenital tract can occur for a wide variety of reasons (see Refs. 236, 237). Those involving the autonomic nervous system range from trauma and diseases such as multiple sclerosis that affect the preganglionic autonomic neurons in the spinal cord to iatrogenic causes such as radical surgery or x-irradiation, which can result in local nerve damage, and, finally, metabolic disorders such as diabetes, which affect autonomic neuromuscular transmission.
Following hypertrophy, there is an increase in the size of autonomic postganglionic neurons in the major pelvic ganglion of the rat (239,241,242). Neural input is not a prerequisite for neuronal growth since it still occurs in obstruction when the major pelvic ganglion has been decentralized or following destruction of unmyelinated sensory nerves by capsaicin. Receptor expression may also be affected following obstruction. Increased expression of ␣-adrenoceptors has been observed in human bladder strips from patients with prostatic bladder obstruction and NA can cause contraction of the muscle, a response that does not usually occur in unobstructed bladder (243).
Some of this plasticity is for compensatory advantage and some lead to altered neural control of effector tissues, which is not beneficial. Manipulation of the ANS to encourage beneficial compensatory changes in nerve growth and the expression of neurotransmitters/neuromodulators and their receptors is an attractive means of therapeutic advance for autonomic dysfunction. Diseases in which the autonomic nervous system is the primary target of the pathological process are relatively rare. It is more usual for autonomic neuropathy Copyright 2003 by Marcel Dekker, Inc.