By E. Reynolds
Not like Euro-centric works on comparative fascism that set Japan except Germany and Italy, this booklet emphasizes parallels among Japan and its Axis Allies. Romantic nationalist ideologies attracted a robust following in all 3 countries as they emerged as glossy states within the overdue 1800s. In either Germany and Japan those have been, from the start, strongly racial in nature. Spurred by way of grievances opposed to the ''status quo'' powers, all 3 took up competitive guidelines within the Thirties, generating a short-lived ''fascist era.'' Japan's in demand position calls for a broader standpoint and attention of ''fascism'' as greater than a basically ecu phenomenon.
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Extra resources for Japan in the Fascist Era
Yet for a Marxist-influenced scholar like Maruyama this variation allows categorization of Japan with its Axis allies. 107 However, the strongest challenge to the Japanese fascism thesis did not come from other Marxists. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, several factors encouraged the burgeoning community of non-Marxist American scholars of Japan to reject Maruyama’s theory. To start with, the American scholars had a different perspective because, unlike Maruyama, they had not directly experienced the police state tactics often used by Japan’s prewar government to persecute intellectual enemies.
These are all important arguments against the concept of Japanese fascism. However, there are also many similarities among the three Axis Powers. The same crises, the same longing for Great Power status, the drive to imperialism, and the same spiritual collectivism is found in all three nations. Obviously, something brought these three nations together. It is easy to claim it was merely convenience, but that is a superficial assessment applicable to all military, political, or economic alliances.
151 In the immediate aftermath of Italy’s World War I debacle, the government came under fire from both the Right and the Left. Out of a milieu of disillusionment and humiliation and with the re-invigoration of the prewar cultural crises, Italy tumbled down a path toward fascism. Mussolini, reflecting the thinking of his generation, blamed both the Great Powers and the weakness of Italy’s liberal government for the postwar debacle. ”152 On Mussolini’s effective propagandizing of Italy’s experience during World War I into an eventual alliance with Germany, H.