В книге английского философа Б. Бозанкета анализируются структура и базовые понятия логики – суждение, пропозиция, отличие логической пропозиции от языкового предложения, понятие отрицания, логический вывод.
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Extra resources for Knowledge and reality
Although psychopaths clearly lack a moral capacity on almost any understanding of capacity, there are lots of other cases where it is much less clear that what is missing is a capacity. In other cases, such as JoJo, if what is missing is a capacity, it is a capacity in a special sense, and the use of that sense requires further justification. Take first, the case most favorable to proponents of the capacity condi tion: psychopaths. It is not at all clear what we mean by that term. We may mean people who lack executive control, who are deranged or psychotic, and in that case I think it is fairly clear that they are not responsible.
There doesn’t seem to be a relevant difference between very strong motivations to φ and motivations so strong that not-φing is not possible. Put like this, it seems that we are deflating the notion of moral incapacity to almost nothing. Perhaps saying that Washington could not tell a lie is just a hyperbolic way of saying that he is very good. This doesn’t support an asymmetry—if we say that an agent is very bad, so strongly motivated to the bad that he can’t bring himself to act well, he seems blameworthy.
Presumably, the agent would have to be blameworthy for something like an act or choice, and her blamewor thiness for the harm would then be inherited from her blameworthiness for those other things, assuming that the relevant epistemic conditions for responsibility are satisfied. So this suggests that perhaps, in cases of this kind, the conditions for responsibility should not be analyzed in terms of a freedom condition and an epistemic condition, but, instead, as something like an inherited responsibility condition and an epistemic condition.