By T. W. Sadler
the recent version is better via over a hundred new and up-to-date illustrations, extra medical photos and photographs of early embryologic improvement, and an increased bankruptcy at the cardiovascular method. additionally, on-line instructing and studying assets comprise the totally searchable textual content on-line, in addition to an interactive Quiz financial institution for college kids and a picture bank.
- Clinical Correlates packing containers illustrated by way of instances and photographs disguise delivery defects, developmental abnormalities, and different scientific phenomena.
- More than four hundred illustrations—including full-color line drawings, scanning electron micrographs, and scientific images—clarify key elements of embryonic development.
- Basic genetic molecular biology ideas are highlighted during the textual content to hyperlink embryology to different severe specialties.
- Chapter review figures supply a visually compelling creation to every chapter.
- Problems to unravel (with precise solutions in the back of the ebook) assist you check your understanding.
- An extended thesaurus defines keywords and concepts.
- An on-line interactive USMLE-style query financial institution is helping you evaluation for assessments and get ready for the Boards.
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Extra resources for Langman's Medical Embryology
14 13 * Ir K )! 7 A. Translocation of the long arms of chromosomes 14 and 21 at the centromere. Loss o f the short arms is not clinically significant, and these individuáis are clinically normal, although they are at risk fo r producing offspring w ith unbalanced translocations. B. Karyotype of translocation of chromosome 21 onto 14, resulting in Down syndrome. T r is o m y 21 [D o w n S y n d r o m e ] Down syndrom e is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21 (trisom y 21) (Fíg. 8]. Features o f children w ítii Down syndrom e include grow th reta rda tion; varying degrees o f in tellectual disability; cranio fad al abnorm alities, includíng upw ard slantíng eyes, epícantlial folds (extra skin folds a t th e medial corners o f th e eyes], fía t facies, and sm all ears; cardiac defects; and hypotonia (Fig.
Each gamete then contains 23 chromosomes. Crossover Crossovers, critical events in meiosis I, are the interchange o f chrom atid segments between paired homologous chromosomes (Fig. 4C). Segments o f chromatids break and are exchanged as homologous chromosomes separate. 4 First and second m eiotic divisions. A. Homologous chromosomes approach each other. B. Homologous chromosomes pair, and each m ember of the pair consists of tw o chromatids. C. Intimately paired homologous chromosomes interchange chromatid fragm ents [crossover].
W hen, a t fe rtiliz a tio n , a g am ete having 23 chrom osom es fuses w ith a gam e te having 24 or 22 chrom osom es, th e re s u lt is an in dividual w ith e ith e r 47 c h ro m o som es (trisom y] or 45 chrom osom es (m onosom y). N o ndisjunction , w h ich occurs during e ith e r th e fir s t or th e second m e io tic divisió n o f th e germ cells, m ay in vo lve th e a u tosom es o r sex chrom osom es. In w o m en, th e incidence o f ch rom osom al abn orm a litie s, in cluding n o n d isjunctio n, increases w ith age, e spe cially a t 35 years and oider.