By Cooper-Knock, Johnathan; Hunter, Zoe; Tate, Matthew; Wood, Elizabeth
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Additional resources for Neurology and Clinical Neuroanatomy on the Move
38 Anatomy of the cerebral hemispheres •• Pia mater: closely adheres to the tissue of the brain. 1). 2) may be caused by trauma to the thin part of the skull, the pterion. This overlies the middle meningeal artery, which is responsible for the majority of the blood supply to the meninges. • Fracture of the pterion results in a tear of the middle meningeal artery and subsequent bleeding into the potential space between the dural layers. • The bleed is arterial; therefore, the haematoma expands more acutely than a venous subdural haematoma.
It is more commonly known as the ‘flapping tremor’ and more easily elicited with the arms outstretched and the hands in dorsiflexion. •• Occurs as a result of loss of proprioception input to the reticular formation in the brainstem. 2). g. phenobarbitol). 2). DYSARTHRIA •• Dysarthria is the abnormal speech resulting from impaired motor function. 3. DYSPHONIA Clinical neurology •• Related to dysfunction of the vocal chords within the larynx. The voice •• becomes husky in nature, and patients classically present with a ‘bovine cough’.
In conductive hearing loss, the sound will be louder via bone conduction; in sensorineural hearing loss, utilising bone conduction will not improve the hearing loss. 5 ABNORMALITIES OF EYE MOVEMENT Clinical neurology STRABISMUS •• Strabismus occurs when the visual axis of each eye are not directed •• simultaneously at the same object. It may occur due to a problem in the vision through one eye (usually a refractive error). •• The brain compensates for this by reducing dependence on the affected eye and stopping the eyes working together in unison.