By Jan Kyrre Berg Olsen, E. Selinger, S. Riis
The amount advances study within the philosophy of expertise via introducing participants who've an acute feel of the way to get past or reframe the epistemic, ontological and normative barriers that presently restrict the fields of philosophy of know-how and technological know-how and expertise stories.
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Additional info for New Waves in Philosophy of Technology
If they do not, this should not be construed that either calculations are irrelevant (Aristotle) or that observation is not required (Plato). A bad fit could signal that the scientists have left something out of account and that they should go back to redo their homework. For Galileo, observations and measurements yield scientific facts, and if these conflict with existing philosophical beliefs, it is orthodox philosophy and not science that should give way. Careful observation of the moon’s surface through the telescope has shown that it is not smooth, but has craters and mountains; dismissing such evidence in the name of Aristotelianism would amount to a mere dogmatic appeal to authority.
Why do plants lean towards light? Because the plants, in order to grow and develop in a way they are capable (or have the potential), require light and so strive to reach it. The new science and its philosophy render this kind of explanation both redundant and unintelligible, but would instead sanction a regularity type of explanation. Whenever plants are found to grow well, they have leant towards light; in the absence of light, plants have not been found to grow. Indeed, to modern philosophy, the entire Aristotelian conceptual apparatus in terms of ‘wants’, ‘desires’, ‘striving to fulfil’, etc.
However, the efforts of others such as Kepler (1571–1630) must not be ignored. Kepler formulated the principle of inertia, that bodies tend to remain stationary wherever they might be, thereby challenging the Aristotelian conception of natural movements, namely, that each of the four elements has a natural home assigned to them; for earth and water it is the ground such that objects pertaining to them possess the natural tendency of gravity enabling them to strive to return to their natural abode if they were removed from it, while for fire and air, their natural abode is above the ground, such that objects pertaining to these possess the natural tendency to levity.