Nuclear Medicine Physics (Series in Medical Physics and by Joao Jose De Lima

By Joao Jose De Lima

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By Joao Jose De Lima

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Extra resources for Nuclear Medicine Physics (Series in Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering)

Example text

It has been regularly used in the production of radionuclides for biomedical purposes since the 1950s and became unquestionably important in the 1980s, with the increased use of PET and the growth of respective centers, where it is the accelerator of choice for the dedicated production of positron emitters. The most common variant is the isochronous cyclotron, which enables high-intensity beams with uniform energy to be produced, simultaneously overcoming both the energy limitations of conventional cyclotrons and the technological complexity of frequency modulation, the significant lower time Cyclotron and Radionuclide Production 33 rate of accelerated particles, and the higher costs of synchrocyclotrons.

The corresponding thick target yield corresponds to the highest activity that can be produced using the nuclear reaction in question per beam current unit acting on a target with this energy. This explains the use of diagrams of the thick target yield as a function of this energy, which are very common in literature on the subject. The measurement of the experimental thick target yield for different energies should lead to values consistent with those obtained in theoretical calculations based on the excitation function.

Fission products) at distances close to the range value [25]. 9 Energy Degradation versus Ionization An ion passing through a given medium may interact with an electron, transferring enough energy to overcome the ionization potential of the atom to which it is connected. In this case, it causes an ionization known as primary ionization, as it is the direct result of projectile–electron interaction. In most cases, the electron is ejected from the atom with relatively low kinetic energy in comparison with the ionization potential.

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