By Julia Rubanovich
The quantity demonstrates the cultural centrality of the oral culture for Iranian reviews. It comprises contributions from students from a number of parts of Iranian and comparative reports, between that are the pre-Islamic Zoroastrian culture with its vast community of impacts in past due vintage Mesopotamia, particularly one of the Jewish milieu; classical Persian literature in its manifold genres; medieval Persian heritage; oral background; folklore and extra. The essays during this assortment embody either the pre-Islamic and Islamic classes, either verbal and visible media, in addition to numerous language groups (Middle Persian, Persian, Tajik, Dari) and geographical areas (Greater Iran in pre-Islamic and Islamic medieval sessions; Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan of recent times). Taken as an entire, the essays show the original mixing of oral and literate poetics within the texts or visible artefacts each one writer focuses upon, conceptualizing their interrelationship and serve as.
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Extra resources for Orality and Textuality in the Iranian World: Patterns of Interaction Across the Centuries
1970. Persian Popular Romances Before the Safavid Period. Dissertation thesis. Columbia University. ———. 1971. ’ Review of National Literatures. Iran 2/1, pp. 139–60. Harris, Joseph. 2012. ’ In Reichl 2012, pp. 253–78. ———, and Karl Reichl. 2012. 141–202. Herzog, Thomas. 2012. ’ In Reichl 2012, pp. 629–51. Heston, Wilma. 2010. ’ In Kreyenbroek and Marzolph 2010, pp. 135–66. Ismāʿīlī, Ḥusayn, ed. 1380/2001. Abū Ṭāhir-i Ṭarṭūsī. Abū Muslim-nāma. Ganjīna-yi nivishtahā-yi īrānī 55. Tehran: Intishārāt-i Muʿīn; Nashr-i qaṭra; Anjuman-i Īrānshināsī-yi Farānsa dar Īrān.
14 12 Schmaus 1958: 119. Schmaus’ examples are Trofim Ryabinin (type ‘intensif’) and Stsegolenok (type ‘extensif’). See also Chicherov 1982 on singer types and singer schools. : 52). 14 ‘Among the Turkmen the singer-musician who sings memorized songs and poems is called baxšï, in distinction from the shair (shagyr), the narrator-poet’ (У туркмен бахшы называется певец-музыкант, поющий заученные песни и поэмы, в отличие от шагыра – сказителя-поэта; Borovkov 1958: 69). For the different types of epic singers found among the Turkic-speaking peoples, see Reichl 1992: 57–91.
Memory And Textuality In The Orality-literacy Continuum 25 While we can say that written texts, which are generally fixed, can be ‘fluid’ in certain ways and from certain causes, can we also say that oral texts, which as a rule are unstable and variable, can be fixed in certain cases? Variability and stability in written as well as oral literature depend also on additional criteria. One of these is genre. 11 Another is length. The variants of popular quatrains like, for instance, the popular Uyghur qošaq or the Persian du-baytī or rubāʿī, are on the whole minimal in comparison to those found in longer epic poetry.