By Mona Lena Krook
Lately, political events and nationwide legislatures in additional than 100 international locations have followed quotas for the choice of woman applicants to political workplace. regardless of the swift foreign diffusion of those measures, such a lot learn has fascinated with unmarried nations - or, at such a lot, the presence of quotas inside of one international sector. hence, motives for the adoption and impression of gender quotas derived from one research frequently contradict with findings from different circumstances. Quotas for girls in Politics is the 1st e-book to deal with quotas as a world phenomenon to give an explanation for their unfold and influence in varied contexts worldwide. it truly is equipped round units of questions. First, why are quotas followed? Which actors are serious about quota campaigns, and why do they aid or oppose quota measures? moment, what results do quotas have on latest styles of political illustration? Are those provisions enough for bringing extra girls into politics? Or, does their impression rely on different positive aspects of the wider political context? Synthesizing literature on quota regulations, this ebook develops a framework for interpreting the unfold of quota provisions and the explanations for diversifications of their results. It then applies this framework to envision and evaluate campaigns for reserved seats in Pakistan and India, get together quotas in Sweden and the uk, and legislative quotas in Argentina and France.
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Extra resources for Quotas for Women in Politics: Gender and Candidate Selection Reform Worldwide
Most studies focus on characteristics of the electoral system, examining how electoral rules facilitate or hinder the potentially positive effects of quotas on women’s representation. They observe that quotas tend to have the greatest impact in proportional representation (PR) electoral systems with closed lists and high district magnitudes (Caul 1999; Htun and Jones 2002; Matland 2006). Some also identify more idiosyncratic features of particular electoral systems that negatively affect quota implementation, including possibilities for parties to run more than one list in each district (Costa Benavides 2003), the presence of distinct electoral systems for different types of elections (Jones 1998), and opportunities for parties to nominate more candidates than the number of seats available (Htun 2002).
Empty gestures are related to electoral considerations and occur in instances where elites view quotas as a relatively easy way to demonstrate commitment to women’s rights without necessarily altering existing patterns of representation (Htun and Jones 2002). In these cases, leaders enthusiastically embrace gender quotas because they believe that these policies will not personally affect them, will never be implemented, or will be deemed unconstitutional before they can ever be applied (Araújo 2003; Durrieu 1999; Mossuz-Lavau THE ADOPTION OF GENDER QUOTAS 31 1998).
Establishing the reasons for quota adoption, however, does not say anything about how effective these policies actually are. These questions are addressed in the next chapter, which seeks to explain why some quotas come closer than others in achieving higher levels of female representation. This page intentionally left blank THRE E The Implementation of Gender Quotas G ender quotas have now been adopted by political parties and national legislatures in more than one hundred countries around the globe.