By Bernhard Ebbinghaus
Because the Nineteen Seventies early go out from paintings has turn into a huge problem in glossy welfare states. Governments, employers, and unions alike as soon as considered early retirement as a calm technique to the commercial difficulties of mass unemployment and commercial restructuring. this present day governments and foreign agencies suggest the postponement of retirement and a rise in job between older employees. evaluating the us, 8 ecu international locations, and Japan, this e-book demonstratessignificant cross-national transformations in early retirement throughout nations and through the years. The learn evaluates the imp. Read more... checklist of Figures; checklist of Tables; Abbreviations; half I: Exploring pursuits and associations; bankruptcy 1 advent: the ambiguity of early go out from paintings; bankruptcy 2 Actor constellations and curiosity coalitions: exertions, employers, and the kingdom; bankruptcy three defense, construction, and partnership associations: From institutional affinities to complementarities; half II: evaluating early go out regimes; bankruptcy four Ever previous retirement: evaluating employment trajectories; bankruptcy five The protection-pull elements: a number of pathways to early go out. bankruptcy 6 The production-push components: The political economic system of work sheddingPART III: Reform stumbling blocks and possibilities; bankruptcy 7 go out from early retirement: Paradigm shifts, coverage reversals, and reform stumbling blocks; bankruptcy eight end: From direction dependence to direction departure?; Appendix notice; References; Index; A; B; C; D; E; F; G; H; I; J; okay; L; M; N; O; P; R; S; T; U; V; W; Y; Z
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Extra resources for Reforming Early Retirement in Europe, Japan and the USA
Not only public policy but also private occupational beneﬁts—provided by employers or negotiated by the collective bargaining partners—may offer additional opportunities or supplement insufﬁcient public beneﬁts for preretirement. In recent years, several comparative studies have highlighted the need to examine the involvement of ﬁrms or the social partners in the provision of occupational welfare, often previously over¨ 1997a; Shalev 1996). In addition, recent looked (Rein and Wadensjo studies point to employers’ roles in the social policy arena and their inﬂuence on public policy (Mares 2001a; Martin 2000; Swenson 2002).
Reform-minded governments have attempted to raise the statutory retirement age, tighten eligibility for disability pensions, close special preretirement schemes, shift from passive to active labor market policies, and foster gradual partial pension schemes—all in order to reduce public 20 Introduction expenditure and to increase activity rates among older workers. However, they encounter considerable obstacles owing to substitution effects, mere cost-shifting, and counteraction by the social partners.
Concentrating on only one social security program is insufﬁcient to fully grasp pull factors because there are several alternative pathways, even when they are not necessarily complete functional equivalents. While in one country early exit from work may be facilitated by drawing on seniority pensions early, in another country long-term unemployment beneﬁts provide a ‘bridging pension’ (Guillemard and van Gunsteren 1991). Although one pathway may serve as an alternative for another, the eligibility conditions, the generosity of beneﬁts, and control over access often vary considerably.