By Steven F. Perry
This monograph has tried to collect morphological and physiological reviews of reptilian lungs, to investigate the character of the ensuing correlations, and to chance a few speculations concerning the evolution of reptilian lung constitution. primary to this paintings is the morphometric review of the lungs in species of lizard: "the teju (Tupinambis nigropunctatus Spix) and the savanna video display (Varanus exanthema ticus [Bosc]) that's provided the following for the 1st time. those species are comparable in physique shape, and either are diurnally energetic predators, yet their lungs are of uncomplicated best friend diverse structural forms. The teju possesses really small, single-chambered (unicameral) lungs during which the homeycomb-like (faveolar) parenchyma is kind of flippantly allotted alongside their size. within the visual display unit the lungs are huge and many-chambered (multicameral), the person chambers connecting to an unbranched, intrapulmonary bronchus. The parenchyma is within the kind of shallow booths (ediculae), that are elaborated at the intercameral septa. The parenchyma is heterogeneously dispensed in the lungs, tending to be so much focused close to the intrapulmonary bronchus and the center 3rd of the lung size. The ventral and caudal parts of those lungs are thin-walled and hugely versatile. In either species these parts of the lungs that are so much uncovered to air convection own dense capillary nets which just about thoroughly disguise either side of the parenchymal walls. in additional distal areas of the parenchy ma or of the lung, the intercapillary areas develop into greater, making a pseudo-single capillary internet.
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Extra resources for Reptilian Lungs: Functional Anatomy and Evolution
As shown in Fig. 15 (for two case studies) and in Table 3, the greatest concentration of parenchyma in the teju lung is in the anterior two-thirds, especially near the entrance of the bronchus. In the monitor lung, on the other hand, the parenchyma is distributed throughout the anterior two-thirds of the lung, reaching its maximal concentration near the middle of the lung and decreasing posteriorly. In cross section, the parenchyma in the teju lung is homogeneously distributed, whereas that of the monitor lung is concentrated dorsally, near the intrapulmonary bronchus (Table 3).
Preliminary measurements in the unicameral lung of the northern water snake and the paucicamerallungs of the green iguana also fall within this range. 5 Capillary Bulging The manner of disposition of capillaries in the partitions is of importance in exploitation of the respiratory potential of the lung, since exposure of a large proportion of the capillary surface to a thin air-blood barrier means"a potentially rapid gas exchange. A great exposure of capillary surfaces is achieved in two mutually exclusive ways: (a) by loose attachment of the double capillary net to the partition (capillary bulging), or (b) by full incorporation of the capillaries into the middle of the partition, thus ex42 posing a single network of capillaries on both sides.
44 The way in which lungs achieve a certain morphometrically measured diffusing capacity appears to differ according to lung type (Fig. 24). Unicameral lungs must distribute all respiratory partitions along the lung wall. Thus, a large diffusing capacity without excessive parenchymal depth is best achieved if the parenchymal tissue is highly specialized for gas exchange. Indicators of this specialization - a large surface-tovolume ratio, a high percentage of respiratory surface area, a thin air-blood diffusion barrier - are characteristic of unicameral lungs.