By A. Knight
Few moral concerns create as a lot controversy as invasive experiments on animals. a few scientists declare they're crucial for struggling with significant human affliction, or detecting human pollutants. Others declare the opposite, sponsored via hundreds of thousands of sufferers harmed via prescription drugs built utilizing animal assessments. a few declare all experiments are carried out humanely, to excessive clinical criteria. but, a wealth of stories have lately published that laboratory animals endure major pressure, which can distort experimental effects. -Where, then, does the reality lie? -How beneficial are such experiments in advancing human healthcare? -How a lot do animals undergo consequently? -And do scholars actually need to dissect or scan on animals? -What are the consequences on their attitudes in the direction of them? Bioethicist and veterinarian Andrew Knight offers greater than a decade of ground-breaking clinical learn, research and event to supply evidence-based solutions to a key query: is animal experimentation ethically justifiable?
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Additional info for The Costs and Benefits of Animal Experiments (The Palgrave Macmillan Animal Ethics Series)
2007, Lilienblum et al. 2008). Summary The most accurate evidence-based estimates of global laboratory animal numbers currently available describe animal use in 2005. 6 million more were estimated to have been killed for the provision of experimental tissues or as surplus to requirements, or used to maintain established GM strains, none of which were included within EU standardised figures. indd 16 5/13/2011 12:25:42 PM Global Laboratory Animal Use 17 2008a). 6 million component, is markedly limited by lack of published animal use statistics.
4; HRA 2010). Unfortunately, data for just under half the Australian states and territories were available; however, these included New South Wales and Victoria, which can be assumed to be the greatest users of laboratory animals on the basis of state population sizes and earlier years for which usage figures were available. To harmonise with EU definitions of scientific animal use, a large number of observational studies involving only minor interference have been excluded from consideration. Where states did not specify categories of animal use at all, their contributions were entirely excluded to ensure that no observational studies were inadvertently included.
1993), bromfenac (Duract; Peters 2005), and phenylbutazone (Butazolidin; Venning 1983), which produced adverse human effects undetected in animal studies. Numerous other pharmaceuticals have also been marketed after passing limited clinical trials and more rigorous animal testing, only later to be found to cause serious side-effects or death in human patients. g. g. g. g. g. Wallenstein & Snyder 1952, Blum et al. 1994, Greek & Greek 2000). Although 92 per cent of new drugs that pass preclinical testing, which routinely includes animal tests, fail to reach the market because of safety or efficacy failures in human clinical trials (FDA 2004), adverse drug reactions detected after drugs have been approved for clinical use remain common.