By Rabindra N. Mohapatra

Derived from a direction given on the collage of Maryland for complicated graduate scholars, this booklet offers with many of the newest advancements in our makes an attempt to build a unified idea of the basic interactions of nature. one of the themes coated are spontaneous symmetry breaking, grand unified theories, supersymmetry, and supergravity. the ebook starts off with a brief evaluation of effortless particle concept and keeps with a dialogue of composite quarks, leptons, Higgs bosons, and CP violation; it concludes with attention of supersymmetric unification schemes, during which bosons and leptons are thought of in a few feel an identical. The 3rd version can be thoroughly revised and taken modern, rather through together with discussions of the numerous experimental advancements in contemporary years.

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5) 3. The SU(2)L × U(1) Model 40 Before discussing weak interactions, let us study the breakdown of SU(2)L × U(1)Y symmetry to U(1)em , which is the only observed exact local symmetry in nature. For this purpose we choose the Higgs potential V (φ) as follows: V (φ) = −µ2 φ+ φ + λ(φ+ φ)2 , µ2 > 0. 7) where µ v=√ . 9) It is easily checked that 1 2 (τ3 which, therefore, is the unbroken generator. We will call this “electric charge” and we get the formula Y . 10) 2 Y is a free parameter of the theory and we have adjusted it appropriately [anticipating eq.

179, 1547 (1969). [13] R. , 1972. [14] J. D. Bjorken and E. A. Paschos, Phys. Rev. 185, 1975 (1969). 20 1. Important Basic Concepts in Particle Physics [15] K. Wilson, Phys. Rev. 179, 1499 (1969); R. Brandt and G. Preparata, Nucl. Phys. 27B, 541 (1971); H. Fritzsch and M. Gell-Mann, Proceedings of the Coral Gables Conference, 1971; Y. Frishman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 966 (1970). [16] C. G. Callan, Phys. Rev. D2, 1541 (1970); K. Symanzik, Comm. Math. Phys. 18, 227 (1970). [17] D. Gross and F. Wilczek, Phys.

7) where µ v=√ . 9) It is easily checked that 1 2 (τ3 which, therefore, is the unbroken generator. We will call this “electric charge” and we get the formula Y . 10) 2 Y is a free parameter of the theory and we have adjusted it appropriately [anticipating eq. 10)] so that the electric charges of the quarks and leptons come out correctly. All other electroweak generators are broken by vacuum. It therefore follows from our previous discussion (Chapter 2) that the gauge bosons corresponding to those generators, to be called W ± and Z, pick up mass.