By Dianne Rahm, John Kirkland, Barry Bozeman (auth.)
Over the final numerous many years there was a growing to be curiosity in study & improvement (R&D) coverage. this is often quite so in complicated industrialized international locations that experience followed technology- and know-how- dependent concepts for nationwide fiscal competitiveness. the us, the uk, and Japan -- the 3 international locations which are the themes of this booklet -- proportion this coverage method. each one of those international locations is devoted to hamessing the techniques that stern from clinical and technological enhance to advertise nationwide financial prosperity. Governments can impression their nation's R&D efIort in 3 common methods. First, they could without delay fund the R&D efIort via promises, loans, appropriations, or govt contracts. moment, they could supply tax and financing incentives to motivate better degrees of non-public zone R&D. 3rd, they could use their strength to create inter-organizational collaborations that significantly expand and extend the nation's collective R&D efIort. University-industry collaborations are a imperative kind of those inter organizational R&D efIorts -- and the point of interest of this book.
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Additional resources for University-Industry R&D Collaboration in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Japan
Science in American Society: A Social History. New York: Alfred A Knopf, 1971. Daniels, George H. American Science in the Age o[Jackson. New York and London: Columbia University Press, 1968. Dupre, J. Stefan and Sanford A Lakoff. Science and the Nation: Policy and Politics. , 1962. Dupree, A Hunter. Science in the Federal Government: A History o[ Politics and Activities to 1940. Cambridge: The Belknap Press ofHarvard University Press, 1957. Foreign Press Center. Facts and Figures o[Japan. Tokyo: Foreign Press Center, 1987.
He also argued that scientific research led to innovation and prosperity. Bush called for the establishment of anational organization to channel federal monies into basic research projects. Further support came for Bush's ideas when, in 1947, The Science and Public Policy report by the president's Science Research Board, chaired by John Steelman, was released. This Steelman Report urged that the government spend at least 1% of the gross national product on R&D and that it financially provide for the performance of basic research in universities and not for profit institutions (Dupre and LakofI, 1962).
Alandmark policy statement was provided with the 1962 White Paper on Science and Technology. This document identified a theme that continues to be of concern today -- the integration of science and technology. Until the 1960s there had been a remarkable degree of separation between science and technology and, sometimes, even a hostility of one profession toward the other. Japanese policy makers believed that many of the successes of Western technology had been due to strong scientific production (and, indeed, that their own technology owed much to Western science).