By Dolores G. Evans, Francisco F. J. de la Cabada, Doyle J. Evans Jr. (auth.), S. Kuwahara, N. F. Pierce (eds.)
The United States-Japan Cooperative clinical technological know-how software used to be initiated in 1965 through joint contract among the President of the us and the best Minister of Japan. the aim of this system used to be to advertise cooperative biomedical learn among the 2 nations, specifically on illnesses of famous impor tance in Asia. Cholera used to be specific as one subject of mutual curiosity. Panels of scientists from each one state have been shaped, and those met to choose precedence parts for learn. The Cholera Panels firstly outlined significant objectives: 1) superior and simplified remedy for cholera, and a couple of) higher tools for immunization. growth within the pursuit of those objectives resulted in the popularity that micro organism except Vibrio cholerae also are vital explanations of acute dehydrating diarrhea which resembles cholera in its manifestations and patho genesis; such a lot striking between those are enterotoxinogenic traces of Escherichia coli. for that reason, panel instructions have been improved to incorporate all diarrheal illnesses that contain fluid loss attributable to an enterotoxin. extra lately, experiences have proven that vibrios, together with V. cholerae, have a special environmental lifestyles cycle that's most likely an impor tant think about the epidemiology of vibrio infections. consequently, the panel instructions have been back improved to incorporate stories at the environmental ecology of vibrios. a huge undertaking of the Joint Cholera Panels has been the association and spon sorship of an annual convention on cholera and comparable diarrheal diseases.
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Additional resources for Advances in Research on Cholera and Related Diarrheas
Baltimore City Hospitals and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA and Rene Germanier, Swiss Serum and Vaccine Institute, Berne, Switzerland There is now much evidence to support the notions that secretory IgA antibody is the first line of immunologic defense of the intestinal mucosa and that a mucosal IgA response is best stimulated by antigens applied to the mucosal surface. On this basis, it has been argued that immunization against cholera, a superficial mucosal infection, should be given orally with the aim of evoking a protective mucosal IgA response (1).
5 IIACT DOSE 11'01 Fig. 3. Fluid accumulation in rabbit intestinal segments challenged with purified cholera toxin (CT) or heat-aggregated cholera toxin (HACT). Indicated doses of CT or 1DO-fold greater doses of HACT were injected into ligated segments of rabbit small bowel. The bowel was replaced in the abdominal cavity and the skin wound closed. Fluid accumulation was measured after 18 hours. Each point represents data from 4 rabbits. 5 50 PRIMING DOSE I~gl Fig. 4. Immunogenicity of purified cholera toxin, heat-aggregated cholera toxin (HACT), and formalintreated HACT.
A. Hanson, S. O. Molin, and H. Nygren. 1979. Local cholera immunity in mice: Intestinal antitoxin-containing cells and their correlation with protective immunity. Infect. Immun. 23: 743-750. 5. Klinman, N. R. 1969. Antibody with homogeneous antigen binding produced by splenic foci in organ culture. Immunochem. 6:757-759. 6. Fuhrman, J. A. and J. J. Cebra. 1981. Special features of the priming process for a secretory IgA response J. Exp. Med. 153:534-544. , S. Kuwahara, N. F. Pierce, 41-48. Copyright © 1983 by KTK Scientific Publishers, Tokyo.