By Martin Elvins (auth.)
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Extra info for Anti-Drugs Policies of the European Union: Transnational Decision-Making and the Politics of Expertise
Although the provisions of the Convention were primarily aimed at preventing the diversion of drugs from licit to illicit channels, this was not accompanied by measures aimed at preventing traffic in clandestinely produced or manufactured drugs. Bruun et al. note that at the time of drafting the Single Convention a number of new drugs (such as barbiturates and tranquillisers) were not included in its provisions, despite concerns from the WHO. Such drugs were the lauded symbols of a burgeoning post-war pharmaceutical industry, buoyed by post-war optimism on the potential role of drugs in the treatment of psychiatric illness.
Implementation of the provisions of the 1961 and 1971 Conventions was made a treaty obligation of all parties to the Vienna Convention, thereby giving a renewed impetus and mark of legitimacy to the existing body of public international drug laws (several decades old by this time). ). 45 The manifest difficulties in acquiring data from direct observation of drug cultivation, manufacture, trafficking, consumption or the investment of proceeds from drug crime means that only indirect measures are available in practice.
A widespread notion has been apparent since the late 1980s projecting the idea that there is a simple cumulative dimension to global threats, that is, implying that the more types of threat there are, the more states become insecure. However, such a view ignores the multifaceted and discrete cause-and-effect relationships that underpin particular transnational problems. Equally, there is no objective basis for measurement of the comparative threats posed by, say, drug trafficking and environmental damage.