By Jacques Mudry, François Zwahlen, Catherine Bertrand, James W. LaMoreaux
Chapters during this publication are contributions from the ninth convention on limestone hydrogeology, equipped in Besançon in September 2011 chosen via the medical committee of H2Karst.The ebook offers most modern effects on within the box of groundwater circulate and garage in the diversified subsystems of karst aquifers; insights into the complicated interplay among groundwater and floor water in karst parts through a multidisciplinary strategy; present wisdom on infection difficulties and contaminant delivery in karst aquifers in addition to an summary of karst hydrogeology in numerous contexts round the world.
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Extra info for H2Karst Research in Limestone Hydrogeology
5–2 m thick (Kang and Zhang 2002). For the cut-off foundation, 14,775 m3 of karstified rock mass and cavern deposits was excavated and replaced with 15,152 m3 of concrete. Bath-tub structure means construction of an impervious structure by combination of vertical, inclined or sub-horizontal (Oymopinar Dam, Turkey; El Cajon Dam, Honduras). 18 River Trebišnjica, BiH. 4 Surface Impermeabilization: Structures and Technologies To reduce water losses from the reservoirs situated in karst the common applied surface structures and technologies are: compacted clayey blankets; different kinds of geomembranes; shotcrete (in the case of exposed rock); plugging of ponors (swallow holes); impermeabilization of ponor zones by grouting blankets; heavy reinforced concrete slabs (in the case of high water pressure); cylindrical dams around the large ponors and estavelles; non-return valves to prevent uplift destruction (in the case of estavelles); construction of rock-filled or earth-filled dikes to amputate sinking zones from reservoir and construction of aeration pipes to prevent air-hammer destruction.
Because of the intensive washing process of the clayey/sandy deposits, the tunnel tube of the 8 km long head race tunnel of the Čapljina Reversible Power Plant lost support at a length of 16 m. The leakage of 1 m3/s was a consequence of lining destruction. Repair works consist of construction of a reinforced arch beneath the tunnel and filling of the empty space by gravel and grout mix. The empty space above the tunnel was left untreated. ) and many others. Due to enormous inflow in the head race tunnel in the case of Seimareh Power Plant the inclination of the tunnel route was changed.
Both processes (solution and erosion) occurred simultaneously. Mostly the intensity of karstification is not continuous on a geological time scale. Karstification is connected to an emergence phase. Each phase of emergence was in some time followed by the process of karstification of upraised carbonate rocks above the sea level. As a result of the dynamic neotectonic movement and karst aquifer evolution process, the transformation processes from several karst aquifers into a single aquifer or decomposition of a single aquifer into a few independent aquifers are common.