By Philip A. Wood
An experimental pathologist and molecular geneticist, Philip wooden makes use of gene-knockout know-how to check the way in which mouse genes control the metabolism of fat—research that gives insights into the workings of fatty-acid metabolism in people and what can occur while that metabolic stability is going awry. according to the sessions he on a regular basis teaches to first- and second-year scientific scholars, Wood's booklet stories the person and public future health burden of weight problems and clarifies often-used, yet frequently inadequately defined, phrases hired within the carrying on with cultural and medical debate approximately extra fats. He explains the position of fats within the fit physique, how fats is made, kept, and burned, and demonstrates how extra fats may end up in an array of metabolic issues and ailments, from hypercholesterolemia and insulin resistance to diabetes. He studies what fresh examine can let us know approximately particular genes or teams of genes that may result in particular metabolic problems. He explains the technology in the back of universal weight reduction regimens and why these regimens may well prevail or fail, and reports the advanced interaction of hormones, genes, and rigidity within the manner bodies take care of fats throughout the existence cycle. How fats Works is a concise, transparent, and updated primer at the workings of fats, and crucial examining for pros getting into careers in drugs and public health and wellbeing management or somebody short of a greater realizing of 1 of our so much pressing future health crises. (20060226)
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An experimental pathologist and molecular geneticist, Philip wooden makes use of gene-knockout expertise to review the best way mouse genes keep an eye on the metabolism of fat—research that offers insights into the workings of fatty-acid metabolism in people and what can take place whilst that metabolic stability is going awry.
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26 • problems of excess fat and cholesterol but it is only an estimate of the whole body’s cholesterol status and does not tell the whole story. Often in addition to total cholesterol, what we want to know is the proportion of cholesterol in the “bad” LDL fraction and that contained in the “good” HDL fraction. There are other cholesterol-containing lipoprotein fractions as well, such as chylomicrons, VLDL (very low density lipoprotein), and IDL (intermediate-density lipoprotein). These others are not routinely measured but can be very important in evaluating and treating a condition known as dyslipidemia or hyperlipidemia, which involves abnormally high amounts of the different lipids in the blood.
3. Leptin plays a central role in appetite control by either activating or inhibiting two distinct populations of neurons in the appetite center in the brain. First, leptin must interact with receptor molecules in the cell membranes of neurons. Activation by the leptin molecule will either promote or inhibit a series of reactions within the cell. In some neurons, the production of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP), which stimulate appetite, is turned off by leptin. Acting as counterbalance is the activity of adjacent neurons that produce pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART).
Some of the PUFAs are also important as essential fatty acids, as well as the health-promoting fatty acids found in fish known as omega-3 fatty acids (see below). 1. Common dietary fatty acids Fatty acid name (common dietary source) Palmitic acid (animal and plant fats) Stearic acid (animal fats) Oleic acid (animal fats, olive oil) Linoleic acid (plant oils) α-Linolenic acid (plant oils) Arachidonic acid (plant oils) Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (fish oil) Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (fish oil) Carbon chain length: number of double bonds Naming by omega terminology C16:0 C18:0 C18:1 C18:2 C18:3 C20:4 C20:5 C22:6 — — omega-9 omega-6 omega-3 omega-6 omega-3 omega-3 Note: Omega terminology indicates which carbon from the methyl-end of the chain has the first double bond; saturated fatty acids, with no double bonds, therefore have no name in omega terminology.