By Marx W. Wartofsky
Marx Wartofsky has been operating for a few years inside an strange confluence of philosophical difficulties. He brings to those intersecting difficulties his entire intelligence, right away inventive and rigorous, analytic and old. he's a philosopher's thinker, but in addition Everyman's. Wartofsky is thinker of the ordinary and the social sciences, of conception, esthetics and the inventive arts, of the 18th century French and the nineteenth century Germans, of politics and morality, ofthe tools and morals of drugs, and it truly is simple, of all human lifestyles. To a colleague, he turns out Jack-of-all-philosophical-trades, and grasp of them too. The reader quickly will study that Wartofsky is a genial, lucid and secure philosophical better half, deeply critical yet with no obvious nervousness. i want now not spotlight those chosen epistemological papers accrued as, and approximately, types, due to the fact that Wartofsky's personal introductory feedback are beneficial and stimulating in that appreciate. i want basically, after 21 years of friendship and collaboration with him, warn the reader to watch out for how profound and provocative those papers will express themselves to be underneath their good-humored and swiftly-flowing floor. and that i needs to publicly observe the excitement with which I welcome Marx Wartofsky's quantity to our Boston experiences. Boston college R.S.C. middle for the Philosophy and background of technology September 1979 vii desk OF CONTENTS EDITORIAL PREFACE VII xi AC ok NOWLEDGEMENTS xiii advent The version clutter: Proposals for an conceited Realism 1.
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Additional resources for Models: Representation and the Scientific Understanding
28-95. 10 R. Camap, 'Testability and Meaning,' reprinted in Feigl and Broadbeck, Readings in Philosophy of Science, New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1953, p. 67. 11 Nagel, Op. , p. 366. , p. 364, 368. 13 Quine, Loc. Cit. 14 Oppenheim and Putnam, Op. Cit. 15 Bunge, Op. Cit. 16 R. Carnap, 'Empiricism, Semantics and Ontology,' reprinted in Meaning and Necessity, Chicago: U. of Chicago Press, 1956, enlarged edition. Second edition, p. 207. 17 G. Maxwell, 'Theories, Frameworks and Ontology,' Philosophy of Science, 29, 2, (April 1962), p.
So it is with all 'pictures' and with all THE MODEL MUDDLE 9 'picturing'. On analysis, then, 'simple' pictures turn out to be more complex transformations of their objects than most theories are. I take models then to be pictures, allowed this complex sense: but pictures which refer, as some pictures do. The reference is always to something taken to be real, and outside the picture, or representation of it: no self-reference then, or no thing as model of itself. The sense in which a picture 'resembles' or 'looks like' its object may then range all the way from the familiar sense in which we may map contours on contours, from one to the other; but it may also be the sense in which the 'representative' of a nation represents the nation: again a mapping of his views, his votes, his behavior qua representative on the properties of that entity we take to be his nation.
Its avoidance of the claim REDUCTION, EXPLANATION AND ONTOLOGY 15 to ontological reduction in explanation is by the radical device of disclaiming ontological reference in theories at the very outset. Obviously, since there is nothing to reduce, in this sense, there is nothing to be eliminated in a reductive explanation. And since reduction is a matter of the deducibility of statements, talk about elimination of entities or properties by reduction is meaningless, or spurious. This, then, is non-ontological reduction, (to which I would counterpose the alternative: non-reductive ontology).