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Additional resources for Muscular Systems of Vertebrates
The nuclei of smooth muscle cells retain their central position but also elongate to conform to the spindle shape of smooth muscles. Cardiac Muscles Like smooth muscles, cardiac muscles develop from the splanchnic mesoderm surrounding the primitive cardiac tube; they are the only striated muscles derived from the splanchnic mesoderm. The splanchnic mesoderm around the developing cardiac tube thickens and envelopes the tube, forming a wall that later becomes the myocardium. Prenatally, the cells of the primitive myocardium contain a single centrally located nucleus but soon after birth, two or more nuclei retaining their central location may be encountered.
18 MUSCULAR SYSTEM OF VERTEBRATES The demands of a terrestrial environment occasioned development of sturdy muscular fins and a strong skeleton. The early amphibian legs were used for crawling between ponds and streams but as they developed further, became suitable for movement on land. Most anurans (frogs and toads) and urodeles (newts and salamanders) have a sturdy skeletal system and their organs are adapted to life on land although they prefer humid and damp environments. In urodeles the axial musculature, most important for propulsion, is the largest and segmented.
6). The striations occur as a result of alternating bands of thin (actin) and thick (myosin) filaments (see Chapter 4 for details on contraction). Contrary to cardiac muscles, cells of skeletal muscles do not show branching and anastomosis and contain abundant glycogen granules. FIBER TYPES Muscle fiber types may be classified according to functional and structural characteristics. The following types are therefore 32 MUSCULAR SYSTEM OF VERTEBRATES recognized: tonic, slow phasic (red), fast phasic glycolytic (white), and intermediate fast phasic oxidative (pink).